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CpG DNA has been recognized as a powerful stimulant of dendritic cells (DCs). In this study, we demonstrate that CpG DNA inhibits spontaneous apoptosis of DCs. CpG DNA up-regulated cellular inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (cIAPs) as well as Bcl-2 and Bcl-x(L), but down-regulated active caspase-3. Although CpG DNA activated p38 mitogen-activated protein(More)
We address the problem of large-scale fine-grained visual categorization, describing new methods we have used to produce an online field guide to 500 North American bird species. We focus on the challenges raised when such a system is asked to distinguish between highly similar species of birds. First, we introduce "one-vs-most classifiers." By eliminating(More)
Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a rare thrombotic complication characterized by a triad of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute renal failure. HUS may be caused by several different conditions, including infection, malignancy, and chemotherapeutic agents, such as mitomycin, cisplatin, and most recently, gemcitabine. The outcome(More)
Energy storage devices that can deliver high powers have many applications, including hybrid vehicles and renewable energy. Much research has focused on increasing the power output of lithium batteries by reducing lithium-ion diffusion distances, but outputs remain far below those of electrochemical capacitors and below the levels required for many(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS To determine the incidence and clinical characteristics of tuberculosis (TB) medication-associated Clostridium difficile infection. METHODS This multicenter study included patients from eight tertiary hospitals enrolled from 2008 to 2013. A retrospective analysis was conducted to identify the clinical features of C. difficile infection in(More)
OBJECTIVE To highlight the importance of relieving the most bothersome symptom for improving quality of life (QoL) in male patients with lower urinary tract symptoms. METHODS From January 2010 to March 2011, 242 men with lower urinary tract symptoms visited our clinic, and 194 finished this study. At first visit, the most bothersome symptom was selected(More)
AIM To compare socioeconomic status and pregnancy outcomes in relation to different pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) levels, and to determine whether gestational weight gain is related to socioeconomic status and pregnancy outcomes. METHODS This was a retrospective cohort study of 3554 singleton pregnancies. Gravidas were grouped into three BMI(More)
IL-12 is a pleiotropic cytokine that plays an important role in innate and adaptive immunity. IL-12 induces T cell proliferation and IFN-gamma secretion from activated T cells. It was also reported that IL-12 prevents apoptosis of CD4(+) T cells. However, the signaling mechanism that regulates these IL-12-induced responses is poorly understood yet. In this(More)
PURPOSE We evaluated the safety and accuracy of ultrasonography-guided percutaneous core biopsy collection in patients with renal masses. MATERIALS AND METHODS From June 2008 to August 2012, 30 percutaneous core biopsies of renal masses were performed. The biopsies obtained were small tumors (<4 cm) with ambiguous radiologic findings or that met classic(More)
In this study we demonstrate the anti-apoptotic effect of IL-12 and its underlying mechanism in CD8 T cells. The prolonged stimulation of CD8 T cells with anti-CD3 alone caused apoptosis mediated by Fas and the caspase signaling pathway. However, costimulation with IL-12 significantly prevented anti-CD3-induced apoptosis of CD8 T cells. IL-12 decreased the(More)