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CpG DNA has been recognized as a powerful stimulant of dendritic cells (DCs). In this study, we demonstrate that CpG DNA inhibits spontaneous apoptosis of DCs. CpG DNA up-regulated cellular inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (cIAPs) as well as Bcl-2 and Bcl-x(L), but down-regulated active caspase-3. Although CpG DNA activated p38 mitogen-activated protein(More)
We address the problem of large-scale fine-grained visual categorization, describing new methods we have used to produce an online field guide to 500 North American bird species. We focus on the challenges raised when such a system is asked to distinguish between highly similar species of birds. First, we introduce "one-vs-most classifiers." By eliminating(More)
IL-12 is a pleiotropic cytokine that plays an important role in innate and adaptive immunity. IL-12 induces T cell proliferation and IFN-gamma secretion from activated T cells. It was also reported that IL-12 prevents apoptosis of CD4(+) T cells. However, the signaling mechanism that regulates these IL-12-induced responses is poorly understood yet. In this(More)
Energy storage devices that can deliver high powers have many applications, including hybrid vehicles and renewable energy. Much research has focused on increasing the power output of lithium batteries by reducing lithium-ion diffusion distances, but outputs remain far below those of electrochemical capacitors and below the levels required for many(More)
Nanopatterning of biological materials has significant potential in life sciences and medicine because highly miniatur-ized structures provide routes to high-density combinatorial libraries and ways of manipulating biological structures (proteins , viruses, and cells) at the single particle level. [1–5] Central to the development of this technology is the(More)
Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a rare thrombotic complication characterized by a triad of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute renal failure. HUS may be caused by several different conditions, including infection, malignancy, and chemotherapeutic agents, such as mitomycin, cisplatin, and most recently, gemcitabine. The outcome(More)
AIM To compare socioeconomic status and pregnancy outcomes in relation to different pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) levels, and to determine whether gestational weight gain is related to socioeconomic status and pregnancy outcomes. METHODS This was a retrospective cohort study of 3554 singleton pregnancies. Gravidas were grouped into three BMI(More)
The potential hepatotoxicity of herbal remedies and/or health foods is usually ignored in daily life. There have been cases showing the toxic hepatitis and renal failure associated with the ingestion of raw carp bile. We experienced a case of toxic hepatitis without any evidence of renal failure that was associated with carp juice ingestion. The clinical(More)
Random mutagenesis was performed on beta-agarase, AgaB, from Zobellia galactanivorans to improve its catalytic activity and thermostability. The activities of three mutants E99K, T307I and E99K-T307I were approx. 140, 190 and 200%, respectively, of wild type beta-agarase (661 U/mg) at 40 degrees C. All three mutant enzymes were stable up to 50 degrees C and(More)
A variety of telomere protection programs are utilized to preserve telomere structure. However, the complex nature of telomere maintenance remains elusive. The Timeless protein associates with the replication fork and is thought to support efficient progression of the replication fork through natural impediments, including replication fork block sites.(More)