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In this paper, a compensation technique for realizing a precise decibel-linear CMOS programmable gain amplifier (PGA) is described. The proposed PGA, employing an auxiliary pair, not only retains a constant current density but also offers a gain-independent bandwidth (BW). For verification, a compact PGA (0.1 mm<sup>2</sup>) is fabricated using a(More)
A hierarchical multi-layer neural network with an error back-propagation training algorithm has been adopted for the automatic classification of Giemsa-stained human chromosomes. The first step classifies chromosomes data into 7 major groups based on their morphological features such as relative length, relative area, centromeric index, and 80 density(More)
Size-and time-resolved aerosol samples were collected using an eight-stage Davis rotating unit for monitoring (DRUM) sampler from 29 March to 29 May in 2002 at Gosan, Jeju Island, Korea, which is one of the representative background sites in East Asia. These samples were analyzed using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence for 3-h average concentrations of 19(More)
A 45nm CMOS 7b nonbinary 2b/cycle SAR ADC that operates up to 1GS/s with a 1.25V supply is presented. Use of a nonbinary decision scheme for decision error correction in a 2b/cycle structure not only increases the ADC speed with a relaxed DAC settling requirement but also makes the performance robust to reference fluctuation and signal-dependent comparator(More)