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In this paper, a compensation technique for realizing a precise decibel-linear CMOS programmable gain amplifier (PGA) is described. The proposed PGA, employing an auxiliary pair, not only retains a constant current density but also offers a gain-independent bandwidth (BW). For verification, a compact PGA (0.1 mm<sup>2</sup>) is fabricated using a(More)
Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) before subsequent prolonged ischemia is considered an emerging endogenous means of ischemic brain protection. We tested whether IPC induces endogenous neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and angiogenesis in the peri-ischemic area. Middle cerebral artery occlusion was administered to rats by filament insertion for 10(More)
1. Stretch-activated channels (SACs) were studied in isolated rat atrial myocytes using the whole-cell and single-channel patch clamp techniques. Longitudinal stretch was applied by using two patch electrodes. 2. In current clamp configuration, mechanical stretch of 20 % of resting cell length depolarised the resting membrane potential (RMP) from -63.6 +/-(More)
Recent studies have shown that somatostatin (SOM) inhibits interleukin 6 (IL-6) and interferon gamma (IFNgamma) production by lymphocytes and peritoneal macrophages, whereas substance P (SP) enhances these cytokines production. To define the mechanism of the cytokine production enhancements and inhibitions by SOM and SP, we examined the expression of(More)