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Differences in expression of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor and voltage gated Ca2+ channels (VGCC) in the gerbil cerebellum were investigated to identify routes of Ca2+ influx that may be involved in Purkinje cell damage. Immunodensities of NR1 and NR2A/B were the same in seizure resistant (SR) and seizure sensitive (SS) gerbils. However, both P/Q(More)
Gastrodin is one of the natural compound isolated from Gastrodia elata and has known anticonvulsant effects, although the exact pharmacological principles of this natural compound and its effects on other aspects of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) metabolism in vivo have not been explored. Therefore, in the present study, the effects of gastrodin on GABA(More)
We investigated spatial and temporal alterations of calbindin D-28k (CB) immunoreactivity in the gerbil main olfactory bulb after transient ischemia-reperfusion. In sham-operated animals, CB-immunoreactive (IR) neurons were found in the periglomerular layer, external plexiform layer and granule cell layer. At 1-4 days after ischemic insult, the number of(More)
In the present study, the expression of Na(+)-K(+) ATPase in the gerbil hippocampus associated with various sequelae of spontaneous seizures were investigated in order to identify the roles of Na(+)-K(+) ATPase in the epileptogenesis and the recovery mechanisms in these animals. The population of Na(+)-K(+) ATPase immunoreactive neurons and Na(+)-K(+)(More)
To identify the effects of vigabatrin (VGB) on the metabolism of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) in the seizure prone gerbil hippocampus, we conducted a chronological and comparative analysis of pyridoxal kinase (PLK) and pyridoxine-5'-phosphate oxidase (PNP oxidase) expression. In the VGB treated animals, PNP oxidase immunoreactivity was reduced, although the(More)
Although oxidative stress and excitotoxicity may be interdependent mechanisms that are involved in delayed neuronal death, the temporal participation of these events in the early stage after ischemia-reperfusion insult is unclear. Therefore, in the present study, using the gerbil global ischemic model we investigated whether oxidative stress could be(More)
Fast responses to extracellular ATP are mediated by the activation of P2X receptors. Native and cloned P2X receptors are permeable to monovalent cations such as Na+ and K+ as well as divalent cations such as Ca2+. However, altered P2X receptor expression has not been definitively determined under pathological conditions, particularly in epilepsy. Here we(More)
In the present study, we have identified the alteration in the expressions of GABA shunt-associated enzymes and the GABA transporter in order to determine the relationship between the neuronal damage and GABA metabolism following ischemia. At 30 min post-ischemia, the immunoreactivities of the glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) isoforms were markedly(More)
In the present study, the P(2)X(7) receptor expression in the gerbil hippocampus and GABA-mediated responses of its expression was investigated in order to identify the roles of the P(2)X(7) receptor on seizure activity and recovery mechanisms. P(2)X(7) receptor immunoreactivity in seizure-resistant (SR) gerbils was similar to that in pre-seizure group of(More)
We examined the aged-related changes of calbindin D-28k (CB)-immunoreactive (IR) neurons in the rat main olfactory bulb (MOB). The localization of CB-IR neurons was found to be almost entirely restricted to the glomerular layer. However, a few CB-IR neurons were observed in the granular layer. Prior to the 6th postnatal month (PM 6), the CB-IR neurons had(More)