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The mutation brachypodism (bp) alters the length and number of bones in the limbs of mice but spares the axial skeleton. It illustrates the importance of specific genes in controlling the morphogenesis of individual skeletal elements in the tetrapod limb. We now report the isolation of three new members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta)(More)
Recent advances in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have made it possible to reveal white matter anatomy and to detect neurological abnormalities in children. However, the clinical use of this technique is hampered by the lack of a normal standard of reference. The goal of this study was to initiate the establishment of a database of DTI images in children,(More)
Population maps of the corpus callosum (CC) and cortical lobe connections were generated by combining cortical gray matter parcellation with the diffusion tensor fiber tractography of individual subjects. This method is based on the fact that the cortical lobes of both hemispheres are interconnected by the corpus callosal fibers. T1-weighted structural MRIs(More)
White matter (WM) abnormalities in schizophrenia may offer important clues to a better understanding of the disconnectivity associated with the disorder. The aim of this study was to elucidate a WM basis of auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia through the simultaneous investigation of WM tract integrity and WM density. Diffusion tensor images (DTIs) and(More)
Identification of the PCR markers tightly linked to genes that encode important agronomic traits is useful for marker-assisted selection (MAS). The rice Pi5(t) locus confers broad-spectrum resistance to Magnaporthe grisea, the causal agent of rice blast disease. It has been hypothesized that the Pi5(t) locus carries the same gene as that encoded by the(More)
Estrogens (E) and progestins regulate synaptogenesis in the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus during the estrous cycle of the female rat, and the functional consequences include changes in neurotransmission and memory. Synapse formation has been demonstrated by using the Golgi technique, dye filling of cells, electron microscopy, and(More)
Congenital anomalies of the central nervous system (CNS) often demonstrate aberrant white matter connections, which may be better characterized with diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) and fiber tractography (FT) than with conventional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. DTI-FT demonstrates abnormal hemispheric fiber connections in callosal agenesis or acquired(More)
Cellular adhesion molecules were initially defined as cell surface structures mediating cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions. Adhesion molecules involved in immune responses have been classified into three families according to their structure: selectins, immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily, and integrins. It has been well documented that(More)
Quantification of normal brain maturation is a crucial step in understanding developmental abnormalities in brain anatomy and function. The aim of this study was to develop atlas-based tools for time-dependent quantitative image analysis, and to characterize the anatomical changes that occur from 2years of age to adulthood. We used large deformation(More)
Originally known for its regulation of reproductive functions, estradiol, a lipophilic hormone that can easily cross plasma membranes as well as the blood-brain barrier, maintains brain systems subserving arousal, attention, mood, and cognition. In addition, both synthetic and natural estrogens exert neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects. There is(More)