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HuC encodes an RNA binding protein homologous to Drosophila elav that serves as an excellent early marker for differentiating neurons. We have characterized the promoter of the zebrafish HuC gene by examining the ability of 5'-upstream fragments to drive expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) in live embryos. We determined that 2.8 kb of the(More)
Neurons in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) are responsible for the generation of circadian oscillations, and understanding how these neurons communicate to form a functional circuit is a critical issue. The neurotransmitter GABA and its receptors are widely expressed in the SCN where they mediate cell-to-cell communication. Previous studies have raised(More)
To determine whether intraarticular pretreatment with N-methyl-D-aspartic (NMDA) receptor antagonist ketamine or memantine currently used in humans has prophylactic analgesia in arthritic pain, we examined the effects of their intraarticular injection before carrageenan injection into the knee joint on pain-related behavior and spinal c-Fos expression in(More)
The present study investigated whether the loss of spinal mu-opioid receptors following peripheral nerve injury is related to mechanical allodynia. We compared the quantity of spinal mu-opioid receptor and the effect of its antagonists, such as naloxone and CTOP, on pain behaviors in two groups of rats that showed extremely different severity of mechanical(More)
We examined whether the mGluR1 and mGluR5 were involved in development and maintenance of behavioral signs of non-evoked pain and secondary mechanical hyperalgesia induced by knee joint inflammation. Selective mGluR1 antagonist, (RS)-1-aminoindan-1,5-dicarboxylic acid (AIDA: 50, 100, 200 microM/25 microl, n=10 per group) and selective mGluR5 antagonist,(More)
Previous studies showed that heat-hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia produced by chronic constrictive injury of the sciatic nerve were differentially sensitive to the NMDA receptor antagonist dextrorphan and to morphine and other opioid receptor agonists. These results support the hypothesis that different kinds of neuropathic pain symptoms are caused by(More)
This study examined whether or not the production of mechanical allodynia in a rat model of neuropathic pain required an involvement of supraspinal site(s). To this aim, we assessed the effect of spinal cord section at the L1 segment level on the mechanical allodynia sign (i.e. tail flick/twitch response), which was elicited by innocuous von Frey hair(More)
Although recent studies demonstrated the relieving effect of gabapentin on neuropathic pain, the effect has not been sufficiently examined. In the present study, we investigated the effect of gabapentin on mechanical, warm and cold allodynia in a rat model of peripheral neuropathy. Under enflurane anesthesia, animals were subjected to the partial injury of(More)
Glutamate is considered to be the primary neurotransmitter in the retinohypothalamic tract (RHT), which delivers photic information from the retina to the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the locus of the mammalian circadian pacemaker. However, substance P (SP) also has been suggested to play a role in retinohypothalamic transmission. In this study, we sought(More)