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The development of ferroelectric random-access memory (FeRAM) technology with control of grain boundaries would result in a breakthrough for new nonvolatile memory devices. The excellent piezoelectric and electrical properties of bulk ferroelectrics are degraded when the ferroelectric is processed into thin films because the grain boundaries then form… (More)
This Article has been retracted by the authors. The data presented in Figures 1e, 1g, 1h, 2b-d, 4a-b, 4d-e, 6a-b and 7a-b were manipulated and are duplicated in other papers 1–5. All authors acknowledge these issues and agree to the retraction of the Article.