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Recently, novel hybrid thiol peroxidase (TPx) proteins fused with a glutaredoxin (Grx) were found from some pathogenic bacteria, cyanobacteria, and anaerobic sulfur-oxidizing phototroph. The phylogenic tree analysis that was constructed from the aligned sequences showed two major branches. Haemophilus influenzae TPx.Grx was grouped in one branch as a 1-Cys(More)
The Anabaena sp. (ANASP) genome contains seven open reading frames with homology to thiol peroxidase (TPx), also known as peroxiredoxin (Prx). Based on sequence similarities among putative TPx's derived from various cyanobacteria genomes, we designated the seven putative TPx members as VCP, VCT, TCS, and GCT clusters according to the sequence of their(More)
Maize endosperm branching enzyme II (mBEII) plays a pivotal role in determining the quality of starch by catalyzing the synthesis of the alpha-1,6-branch points. While the central (alpha/beta)8-barrel and the C-terminal domains of mBEII have been analyzed previously, the possible role of its amino terminus in catalysis is still poorly understood. Because(More)
Previous analysis of a chimeric enzyme mBEII-IBspHI, in which the C-terminal 229 amino acids of maize endosperm branching enzyme isoform II (mBEII) are replaced by the corresponding 284 amino acids of isoform I (mBEI), suggested that the carboxyl terminus of maize branching enzymes may be involved in catalytic efficiency and substrate preference. In the(More)
The Anabaena sp. genome contains an open reading frame with homology to a novel hybrid form of thiol peroxidase, fused with a glutaredoxin domain. The gene was expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified hybrid protein exerted the highest peroxidase activity toward H2O2 using an electron from a reduced form of glutathione. The calculated kcat and kcat/K(m)(More)
Kinase activity is known as the key biochemical property of MAPKs. Here, we report that ERK1/2 also utilizes its noncatalytic function to mediate certain signal transductions. Sustained activation of the Raf/MEK/ERK pathway induces growth arrest, accompanied by changes in cell cycle regulators (decreased retinoblastoma phosphorylation, E2F1 down-regulation,(More)
Upregulated ERK1/2 activity is correlated with androgen receptor (AR) downregulation in certain prostate cancer (PCa) that exhibits androgen deprivation-induced neuroendocrine differentiation, but its functional relevance requires elucidation. We found that sustained ERK1/2 activation using active Raf or MEK1/2 mutants is sufficient to induce AR(More)
Glutaredoxin 5 (Grx5) is a monothiol member of the Grx family that comprises two dithiol and three monothiol members. Using a yeast two-hybrid system, we isolated a Grx5-binding protein, SPT10, which has been previously suggested to act as a global transcriptional regulator of specific histone genes. We find that among the five members of the Grx family and(More)
Dysregulated Raf/MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling, a common hallmark of tumorigenesis, can trigger innate tumor-suppressive mechanisms, which must be inactivated for carcinogenesis to occur. This innate tumor-suppressive signaling may provide a potential therapeutic target. Here we report that mortalin (HSPA9/GRP75/PBP74) is a novel(More)
Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 syndrome caused by mutations in extracellular receptor or intracellular kinase domains of the RET proto-oncogene. Activation of the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK pathway can lead to growth arrest by secreting leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) in MTC cells harboring a RET receptor domain mutation.(More)