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Although commensalism with gut microbiota exists in all metazoans, the host factors that maintain this homeostatic relationship remain largely unknown. We show that the intestinal homeobox gene Caudal regulates the commensal-gut mutualism by repressing nuclear factor kappa B-dependent antimicrobial peptide genes. Inhibition of Caudal expression in flies via(More)
The symbiotic microbiota profoundly affect many aspects of host physiology; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying host-microbe cross-talk are largely unknown. Here, we show that the pyrroloquinoline quinone-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (PQQ-ADH) activity of a commensal bacterium, Acetobacter pomorum, modulates insulin/insulin-like growth factor(More)
Next-generation sequencing has become the most widely used sequencing technology in genomics research, but it has inherent drawbacks when dealing with high-GC content genomes. Recently, single-molecule real-time sequencing technology (SMRT) was introduced as a third-generation sequencing strategy to compensate for this drawback. Here, we report that the(More)
For the past 10 to 13 million years, Antarctic notothenioid fish have undergone extraordinary periods of evolution and have adapted to a cold and highly oxygenated Antarctic marine environment. While these species are considered an attractive model with which to study physiology and evolutionary adaptation, they are poorly characterized at the molecular(More)
Antarctic hairgrass (Deschampsia antarctica Desv.) is the only natural grass species in the maritime Antarctic. It has been studied as an extremophile that has successfully adapted to marginal land with the harshest environment for terrestrial plants. However, limited genetic research has focused on this species due to the lack of genomic resources. Here,(More)
Antarctic fish have adapted to the freezing waters of the Southern Ocean. Representative adaptations to this harsh environment include a constitutive heat shock response and the evolution of an antifreeze protein in the blood. Despite their adaptations to the cold, genome-wide studies have not yet been performed on these fish due to the lack of a sequenced(More)
BACKGROUND Antarctic hairgrass (Deschampsia antarctica Desv.) is the only natural grass species in the maritime Antarctic. It has been researched as an important ecological marker and as an extremophile plant for studies on stress tolerance. Despite its importance, little genomic information is available for D. antarctica. Here, we report the complete(More)
A chaperonin, PsyGroELS, from the Antarctic psychrophilic bacterium Psychrobacter sp. PAMC21119, was examined for its role in cold adaptation when expressed in a mesophilic Escherichia coli strain. Growth of E. coli harboring PsyGroELS at 10 °C was increased compared to the control strain. A co-expression system using PsyGroELS was developed to increase(More)
Dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) is a key enzyme involved in the recycling of ascorbate, which catalyses the glutathione (GSH)-dependent reduction of oxidized ascorbate (dehydroascorbate, DHA). As a result, DHAR regenerates a pool of reduced ascorbate and detoxifies reactive oxygen species (ROS). In previous experiments involving transgenic rice, we(More)
Notothenia coriiceps, a typical Antarctic notothenioid teleost, has evolved to adapt to the extreme Antarctic marine environment. We previously reported an extensive analysis of the Antarctic notothenioid transcriptome. In this study, we focused on a key component of the innate immune system, the Toll-like receptors (TLRs). We cloned the full-length(More)