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OBJECTIVES This study was performed to identify the risk factors for reduction loss after locking plate fixation of proximal humerus fractures. DESIGN Retrospective study. SETTING University trauma center. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTION We retrospectively evaluated 252 patients who had been surgically treated for proximal humeral fractures with locking(More)
Gamma-ray treatment of phenol was studied in terms of both chemical degradation and toxicological change. About 90% of phenol (5.0 × 10(-4) M) in ultrapure water (UW) was eliminated by gamma-irradiation at a dose of 10 kGy, but acute toxicity was dramatically increased, particularly for dose of 1 kGy, due to the formation of more toxic by-products such as(More)
Because of complexity and diversity of toxicants in effluent, chemical analysis alone gives very limited information on identifying toxic chemicals to test organisms. Toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) techniques have been widely used to identify toxicants in various samples including industrial wastewater as well as natural waters. In response to new(More)
The preparation and utilization of novel iodide glycosyl donors, 2-O-iodoacetyl-glycopyranosyl iodides, is described. The mechanism for the reaction of iodine with carbohydrate cyclic ketene acetal was investigated through low-temperature NMR experiments. 2-O-Iodoacetyl-glycopyranosyl iodides can serve as effective glycosyl donors giving 2-O-iodoacetyl(More)
The intramolecular ionic Diels-Alder reaction of alpha-acetylenic acetals as a precursor of the propargyl cation has been investigated in the presence of Lewis acids and in protic acids. The reaction of diene-tethered alpha-acetylenic acetals (1-2) with formic acid yielded the regioselective intramolecular ionic Diels-Alder reaction products, bicyclodienal(More)
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