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Human amylin, a major constituent of pancreatic amyloid deposits, may be a pathogenetic factor for noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). We demonstrated that the human amylin S20G gene mutation (S20G) was associated with a history of early onset, more severe type of NIDDM, linking the amylin gene to this disease. Also, we demonstrated that(More)
UNLABELLED Islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP, "amylin") is the amyloid-fibril-forming polypeptide in the islets of Langerhans associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. A missense mutation in the IAPP gene associated with early-onset type 2 diabetes has been identified in the Japanese population. This mutation results in a glycine for serine substitution at(More)
Common uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) promoter polymorphism -866G/A is reported to be associated with its expression in adipose tissue and the risk of obesity in Caucasians. On the other hand, several studies suggested that UCP2 expression in beta-cells is an important determinant of insulin secretion. In the Japanese population, morbid obesity is very rare,(More)
Atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetic patients has been linked to increased oxidative stress. Glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1) plays an important role in the antioxidant defense of the vascular wall. To assess the association between variants in the GPx-1 gene and atherosclerosis, we screened the gene in 184 Japanese type 2 diabetic patients and identified(More)
UNLABELLED Aims/Introduction:  Human islet polypeptide S20G mutation (hIAPP(S20G)) is associated with earlier onset type 2 diabetes and increased amyloidogenicity and cytotoxicity in vitro vs wild-type hIAPP (hIAPP(WT)), suggesting that amyloidogenesis may be pathogenic for type 2 diabetes. We compared the contributions of hIAPP(S20G) and hIAPP(WT) toward(More)
Pancreatic islets in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are characterized by loss of β cells and formation of amyloid deposits derived from islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP). Here we demonstrated that treatment of INS-1 cells with human IAPP (hIAPP) enhances cell death, inhibits cytoproliferation, and increases autophagosome formation.(More)
Many studies suggest that amylin, which is cosecreted with insulin from islet beta-cells, is a biologically active peptide and modulates plasma glucose levels. We therefore scanned the amylin gene for mutations in 294 Japanese NIDDM patients by single-strand conformational polymorphism, and we found a single heterozygous missense mutation (Ser-->Gly at(More)
Oxidative stress has been implicated in pancreatic beta-cell damage, insulin resistance and vascular function in diabetic patients and the dysfunction of antioxidant enzymes may be associated with the pathogenesis of diabetes. Extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) is found in the extracellular matrix of tissues and the major scavenger of superoxide(More)
Muscle glycogen synthase (GYS1) is a key enzyme of non-oxidative pathway of glucose metabolism that has been reported to be related to insulin resistance in non-insulin-dependent diabetic (NIDDM) patients. We scanned the GYS1 gene for mutation by single strand conformational polymorphism in 244 non-obese Japanese NIDDM patients and 181 non-diabetic control(More)
AIM The aim of the study was to determine whether fasting serum non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) could be associated with long-term progressive deterioration of insulin secretion in patients with Type 2 diabetes. METHODS Seventy-seven Japanese patients with Type 2 diabetes (mean BMI 23.3 kg/m(2) ) were followed for 10 years. We measured fasting C-peptide(More)