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Continuous infusion of PTH in vivo results in active bone resorption. To investigate the molecular basis of the catabolic effect of PTH in vivo, we evaluated the role of OPG and RANKL, which are known to influence osteoclast formation and function. Weanling rats fed a calcium-free diet were parathyroidectomized and infused with PTH via an Alzet pump to(More)
Bone formation and resorption are tightly coupled under normal conditions, and the interaction of osteoclast precursors with cells of the osteoblast lineage is a prerequisite for osteoclast formation. Cbfa1 is an osteoblast-specific transcription factor that is essential for osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. At present, it is not known whether(More)
Bone loss associated with postmenopausal osteoporosis can be reduced by treatment with antiresorptive agents such as estrogen or bisphosphonates. Whereas bisphosphonates primarily affect bone loss, estrogens have an advantage of also lowering serum cholesterol levels, although they have a detrimental effect in the uterus. Recently, raloxifene HCl, a(More)
We demonstrate 2688-km multi-span transmission using wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) of ten 50-GHz spaced 128-Gb/s PDM-QPSK signals, space-division multiplexed (SDM) in a low-crosstalk 76.8-km seven-core fiber, achieving a record net aggregate per-fiber-spectral-efficiency-distance product of 40,320 km·b/s/Hz. The demonstration was enabled by a novel(More)
Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a potent inhibitor of osteoclast formation and function. To elucidate how OPG is regulated in bone, we examined (1) the expression and localization of OPG protein in bone tissue, (2) the effect of human parathyroid hormone 1-38 (hPTH 1-38) on OPG messenger RNA (mRNA) levels in rat femur metaphyseal and diaphyseal bone, and (3) the(More)
This report describes a microprocedure that may be used for direct measurement of proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans, after chromatographic elution with chaotropic reagents. The assay is based on the ability of the sulfated glycosaminoglycans to bind to the cationic dye, dimethylmethylene blue, in solution. Inclusion of guanidinium chloride (0.24 M) in(More)
The role of articular chondrocytes and matrix degrading enzymes such as collagenase and neutral protease in the pathogenesis of quinolone-induced cartilage degeneration was investigated in immature guinea pigs. Articular cartilage from nalidixic acid (NA) treated guinea pigs was examined for the presence of protease activity or the ex vivo synthesis of(More)
Intraarticular injection of recombinant human interleukin-1 (IL-1) in rats resulted in varying degrees of inflammatory changes depending on the site and frequency of injections. (i) Much lower amounts of IL-1 were required to elicit an inflammatory response in the ankle joints (15-3000 ng) than the knee joints (90-150 micrograms). (ii) The inflammatory(More)
We describe a new multicore fiber (MCF) having seven single-mode cores arranged in a hexagonal array, exhibiting low crosstalk among the cores and low loss across the C and L bands. We experimentally demonstrate a record transmission capacity of 112 Tb/s over a 76.8-km MCF using space-division multiplexing and dense wavelength-division multiplexing (DWDM).(More)
Kerr nonlinearity imposes a limit on the achievable transmission performance and capacity of optical fibre communication links. We show that the nonlinear distortions of a pair of phase-conjugated twin waves are essentially anticorrelated, so cancellation of signal-to-signal nonlinear interactions can be achieved by coherently superimposing the twin waves(More)