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We demonstrate 2688-km multi-span transmission using wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) of ten 50-GHz spaced 128-Gb/s PDM-QPSK signals, space-division multiplexed (SDM) in a low-crosstalk 76.8-km seven-core fiber, achieving a record net aggregate per-fiber-spectral-efficiency-distance product of 40,320 km·b/s/Hz. The demonstration was enabled by a novel(More)
This report describes a microprocedure that may be used for direct measurement of proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans, after chromatographic elution with chaotropic reagents. The assay is based on the ability of the sulfated glycosaminoglycans to bind to the cationic dye, dimethylmethylene blue, in solution. Inclusion of guanidinium chloride (0.24 M) in(More)
We describe a new multicore fiber (MCF) having seven single-mode cores arranged in a hexagonal array, exhibiting low crosstalk among the cores and low loss across the C and L bands. We experimentally demonstrate a record transmission capacity of 112 Tb/s over a 76.8-km MCF using space-division multiplexing and dense wavelength-division multiplexing (DWDM).(More)
Kerr nonlinearity imposes a limit on the achievable transmission performance and capacity of optical fibre communication links. We show that the nonlinear distortions of a pair of phase-conjugated twin waves are essentially anticorrelated, so cancellation of signal-to-signal nonlinear interactions can be achieved by coherently superimposing the twin waves(More)
We demonstrate the generation of a 1.12-Tb/s superchannel based on coherent optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing with polarization-division multiplexed 32-QAM subcarriers, achieving a net intrachannel-spectral-efficiency (ISE) of 8.6 b/s/Hz. Using space-division multiplexing (SDM), we transmit this superchannel over a 76.8-km low-crosstalk(More)
We experimentally investigate the performance of a spectrally efficient multi-carrier channel consisting of two or more optical carriers spaced around the baud rate, with each carrier modulated with polarization division multiplexed (PDM) quadrature phase shift keyed (QPSK) format. We first study the performance of a 100-Gb/s 2-carrier PDM-QPSK channel with(More)
Continuous infusion of PTH in vivo results in active bone resorption. To investigate the molecular basis of the catabolic effect of PTH in vivo, we evaluated the role of OPG and RANKL, which are known to influence osteoclast formation and function. Weanling rats fed a calcium-free diet were parathyroidectomized and infused with PTH via an Alzet pump to(More)
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) regulates osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast survival, in part through the induction of osteoprotegerin (OPG), a protein known to inhibit osteoclast formation and function. To explore the molecular basis of TGF-beta regulation of OPG expression, we evaluated the effects of TGF-beta on osteoclast formation, OPG(More)
Interleukin-1 (IL-1) plays an important role in cartilage destruction associated with inflammatory and degenerative arthritis because of its ability to induce matrix degrading enzymes. Previously, we have shown that the IL-1-induced chondrocyte protease activity was inhibited by transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). In this paper, we show that(More)