Sethumadhavan Chandrasekhar

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Continuous infusion of PTH in vivo results in active bone resorption. To investigate the molecular basis of the catabolic effect of PTH in vivo, we evaluated the role of OPG and RANKL, which are known to influence osteoclast formation and function. Weanling rats fed a calcium-free diet were parathyroidectomized and infused with PTH via an Alzet pump to(More)
Kerr nonlinearity imposes a limit on the achievable transmission performance and capacity of optical fibre communication links. We show that the nonlinear distortions of a pair of phase-conjugated twin waves are essentially anticorrelated, so cancellation of signal-to-signal nonlinear interactions can be achieved by coherently superimposing the twin waves(More)
We demonstrate 2688-km multi-span transmission using wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) of ten 50-GHz spaced 128-Gb/s PDM-QPSK signals, space-division multiplexed (SDM) in a low-crosstalk 76.8-km seven-core fiber, achieving a record net aggregate per-fiber-spectral-efficiency-distance product of 40,320 km·b/s/Hz. The demonstration was enabled by a novel(More)
Bone formation and resorption are tightly coupled under normal conditions, and the interaction of osteoclast precursors with cells of the osteoblast lineage is a prerequisite for osteoclast formation. Cbfa1 is an osteoblast-specific transcription factor that is essential for osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. At present, it is not known whether(More)
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) regulates osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast survival, in part through the induction of osteoprotegerin (OPG), a protein known to inhibit osteoclast formation and function. To explore the molecular basis of TGF-beta regulation of OPG expression, we evaluated the effects of TGF-beta on osteoclast formation, OPG(More)
This report describes a microprocedure that may be used for direct measurement of proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans, after chromatographic elution with chaotropic reagents. The assay is based on the ability of the sulfated glycosaminoglycans to bind to the cationic dye, dimethylmethylene blue, in solution. Inclusion of guanidinium chloride (0.24 M) in(More)
Bone loss associated with postmenopausal osteoporosis can be reduced by treatment with antiresorptive agents such as estrogen or bisphosphonates. Whereas bisphosphonates primarily affect bone loss, estrogens have an advantage of also lowering serum cholesterol levels, although they have a detrimental effect in the uterus. Recently, raloxifene HCl, a(More)
Interleukin-1 (IL-1) plays an important role in cartilage destruction associated with inflammatory and degenerative arthritis because of its ability to induce matrix degrading enzymes. Previously, we have shown that the IL-1-induced chondrocyte protease activity was inhibited by transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). In this paper, we show that(More)
The N-terminal fragment 1-34 of parathyroid hormone (PTH), administered intermittently, results in increased bone formation in patients with osteoporosis. PTH and a related molecule, parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP), act on cells via a common PTH/PTHrP receptor. To define more precisely the ligand-receptor interactions, we have crystallized human(More)
We describe a new multicore fiber (MCF) having seven single-mode cores arranged in a hexagonal array, exhibiting low crosstalk among the cores and low loss across the C and L bands. We experimentally demonstrate a record transmission capacity of 112 Tb/s over a 76.8-km MCF using space-division multiplexing and dense wavelength-division multiplexing (DWDM).(More)