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The concept of the therapeutic alliance and its operationalization have received much attention in recent years. One of the early self-report measures of the therapeutic alliance was the Helping Alliance questionnaire (HAq-I). This scale was recently revised to exclude the items that explicitly reflect improvement. Using the revised 19-item HAq-II on a(More)
OBJECTIVES There are no studies that examine street-based female sex workers' vulnerability to HIV from both clients and intimate partners. This study documents street-based female sex workers' experiences of client and intimate partners, examines the intersections of violence, alcohol use in condom use, and highlights survival strategies used to avert(More)
BACKGROUND It is estimated that there are up to 1.1 million injection drug users (IDUs) in India; the majority are likely married. We characterize HIV, hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) prevalence and the risk environment of a sample of spouses of IDUs. METHODS A cohort of 1158 IDUs (99% male) was recruited in Chennai, India from 2005-06. A(More)
Addressing male heterosexual risk is a high priority for HIV prevention efforts in India. Particularly in urban India, which draws men for employment opportunities, these efforts are gaining momentum with a focus on understanding possible risk facilitators such as alcohol use. However, little is known about venues where such efforts might be targeted. In(More)
HIV/AIDS stigma is a frequently cited barrier to HIV prevention, including voluntary counseling and testing. A reliable and valid measurement instrument is critical to empirically assess the extent and effects of HIV/AIDS stigma. The paper reports the development and psychometric testing of an HIV/AIDS stigma scale among 200 men in India. The resulting(More)
This article examined the prevalence of physical and sexual violence among 1,974 married women from 40 low-income communities in Chennai, India. The authors found a 99% and 75% lifetime prevalence of physical abuse and forced sex, respectively, whereas 65% of women experienced more than five episodes of physical abuse in the 3 months preceding the survey.(More)
With an estimated 2.5 million people living with HIV/AIDS, India has the third highest number of HIV-infected people in the world. Despite reductions in prevalence among the general population, the percentage of all infections occurring among Indian women is continuing to rise. Women's risk of HIV infection from their partner and observed associations(More)
OBJECTIVE To estimate HIV and sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevalence and behavioral risk characteristics of men who have sex with men (MSM) in Chennai, India. METHODS A cross-sectional population-based random sample survey was conducted in 2001. Randomly selected residents of 30 slums in Chennai were interviewed for behavioral risk factors through(More)
HIV/AIDS stigma can severely compromise the quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) by reducing access and quality of care, adherence to therapy, and disclosure of HIV status, thereby potentially increasing transmission. The objective of this study was to develop and psychometrically test three parallel scales measuring self, experienced, and(More)
Vaginal microbicides currently under development are substances that may prevent the transmission of HIV. Qualitative, in-depth post-trial interview data from a Phase III clinical trial of 6% Cellulose Sulfate microbicide gel in two sites in Africa (Uganda and Benin) and two in India (Chennai and Bagalkot) were examined in order to better understand factors(More)