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OBJECTIVES There are no studies that examine street-based female sex workers' vulnerability to HIV from both clients and intimate partners. This study documents street-based female sex workers' experiences of client and intimate partners, examines the intersections of violence, alcohol use in condom use, and highlights survival strategies used to avert(More)
Addressing male heterosexual risk is a high priority for HIV prevention efforts in India. Particularly in urban India, which draws men for employment opportunities, these efforts are gaining momentum with a focus on understanding possible risk facilitators such as alcohol use. However, little is known about venues where such efforts might be targeted. In(More)
HIV/AIDS stigma is a frequently cited barrier to HIV prevention, including voluntary counseling and testing. A reliable and valid measurement instrument is critical to empirically assess the extent and effects of HIV/AIDS stigma. The paper reports the development and psychometric testing of an HIV/AIDS stigma scale among 200 men in India. The resulting(More)
OBJECTIVE To estimate HIV and sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevalence and behavioral risk characteristics of men who have sex with men (MSM) in Chennai, India. METHODS A cross-sectional population-based random sample survey was conducted in 2001. Randomly selected residents of 30 slums in Chennai were interviewed for behavioral risk factors through(More)
BACKGROUND It is estimated that there are up to 1.1 million injection drug users (IDUs) in India; the majority are likely married. We characterize HIV, hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) prevalence and the risk environment of a sample of spouses of IDUs. METHODS A cohort of 1158 IDUs (99% male) was recruited in Chennai, India from 2005-06. A(More)
HIV/AIDS stigma can severely compromise the quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) by reducing access and quality of care, adherence to therapy, and disclosure of HIV status, thereby potentially increasing transmission. The objective of this study was to develop and psychometrically test three parallel scales measuring self, experienced, and(More)
BACKGROUND As the HIV epidemic continues to expand in India, empiric data are needed to determine the course of the epidemic for high-risk populations and the general population. METHODS Two probability surveys were conducted in Chennai slums among a household sample of men and alcohol venue patrons ("wine shops") to compare HIV and other sexually(More)
Sexual violence has been shown to increase women's risk of HIV infection. India is a country where the HIV epidemic is growing among women and intimate partner violence (IPV) is pervasive. This study examined prevalence of and factors associated with forced sex among female sex workers (FSWs) in Chennai, India. We conducted a probability survey among FSWs(More)
Vaginal microbicides currently under development are substances that may prevent the transmission of HIV. Qualitative, in-depth post-trial interview data from a Phase III clinical trial of 6% Cellulose Sulfate microbicide gel in two sites in Africa (Uganda and Benin) and two in India (Chennai and Bagalkot) were examined in order to better understand factors(More)
This qualitative study examines the role of alcohol in sexual risk among male migrant workers and female sex workers in two South Indian states. Most men reported using alcohol for increased energy and courage prior to their sexual experiences and to reduce feelings of loneliness and isolation. Sex workers, on the other hand, often stated that they avoided(More)