Seth S. Margolis

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Vertebrate female reproduction is limited by the oocyte stockpiles acquired during embryonic development. These are gradually depleted over the organism's lifetime through the process of apoptosis. The timer that triggers this cell death is yet to be identified. We used the Xenopus egg/oocyte system to examine the hypothesis that nutrient stores can(More)
DNA-responsive checkpoints prevent cell-cycle progression following DNA damage or replication inhibition. The mitotic activator Cdc25 is suppressed by checkpoints through inhibitory phosphorylation at Ser287 (Xenopus numbering) and docking of 14-3-3. Ser287 phosphorylation is a major locus of G2/M checkpoint control, although several checkpoint-independent(More)
The mechanisms that promote excitatory synapse formation and maturation have been extensively studied. However, the molecular events that limit excitatory synapse development so that synapses form at the right time and place and in the correct numbers are less well understood. We have identified a RhoA guanine nucleotide exchange factor, Ephexin5, which(More)
The Cdc25 phosphatase promotes entry into mitosis through the removal of inhibitory phosphorylations on the Cdc2 subunit of the Cdc2/CyclinB complex. During interphase, or after DNA damage, Cdc25 is suppressed by phosphorylation at Ser287 (Xenopus numbering; Ser216 of human Cdc25C) and subsequent binding of the small acidic protein, 14-3-3. As reported(More)
BACKGROUND Vertebrate oocytes are arrested in metaphase II of meiosis prior to fertilization by cytostatic factor (CSF). CSF enforces a cell-cycle arrest by inhibiting the anaphase-promoting complex (APC), an E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets Cyclin B for degradation. Although Cyclin B synthesis is ongoing during CSF arrest, constant Cyclin B levels are(More)
It has been known for over a decade that inhibition of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) activity prevents entry into M phase, but the relevant substrate has not been identified. We report here that PP1 is required for dephosphorylation of the Cdc2-directed phosphatase Cdc25 at Ser287 (of Xenopus Cdc25; Ser216 of human Cdc25C), a site that suppresses Cdc25 during(More)
The cyclin B1/Cdc2 complex regulates many of the dramatic cellular rearrangements observed at mitosis. Although predominantly cytoplasmic during interphase, this kinase complex translocates precipitously to the nucleus at the G(2)-M transition. The interphase cytoplasmic location of cyclin B1/Cdc2 reflects continuous, albeit slow, nuclear import and much(More)
BACKGROUND In response to DNA damage, cells undergo either cell-cycle arrest or apoptosis, depending on the extent of damage and the cell's capacity for DNA repair. Cell-cycle arrest induced by double-stranded DNA breaks depends on activation of the ataxia-telangiectasia (ATM) protein kinase, which phosphorylates cell-cycle effectors such as Chk2 and p53 to(More)
Most human cancer cells are thought to acquire the ability to divide beyond the capacity of normal somatic cells through illegitimately activating the gene hTERT, which encodes the catalytic subunit of telomerase. While telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) is conserved in most eukaryotes, mounting evidence suggests that the C terminus of the human(More)
Xenopus oocyte death is partly controlled by the apoptotic initiator caspase-2 (C2). We reported previously that oocyte nutrient depletion activates C2 upstream of mitochondrial cytochrome c release. Conversely, nutrient-replete oocytes inhibit C2 via S135 phosphorylation catalyzed by calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. We now show that C2(More)