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OBJECTIVE The 24-week Etanercept Assessment of Safety and Effectiveness (EASE) study evaluated the effectiveness and tolerability of continuous versus interrupted etanercept treatment in patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. The objective of this analysis was to assess patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and health-care resource utilization (HRU)(More)
BACKGROUND Atopic dermatitis/eczema (AD/E) is a common disease. Few studies have attempted to quantify the cost to third-party payers. OBJECTIVE Our purpose was to identify the annual cost of medical services and prescription drugs for the treatment of AD/E to private insurance and Medicaid payers in the United States. METHODS We used a retrospective(More)
This editorial review summarizes the results of 5 meetings sponsored by the International Society for Cutaneous Lymphoma at which the clinicopathologic and ancillary features of early mycosis fungoides were critically examined. Based on this analysis, an algorithm was developed for the diagnosis of early mycosis fungoides involving a holistic integration of(More)
We have previously demonstrated heterologous desensitization of human mononuclear leukocytes (MNL) by incubation of low (e.g., 10(-6)M) concentrations of histamine, isoproterenol and prostaglandin E1. Subsequent exposure of the cells to stimulating (e.g., 10(-3) to 10(-5)M) concentrations of any one of the three agonists shows reduced cAMP responses.(More)
The ability of skin to maintain its protective structural and functional integrity depends on both resident and circulating cells. Until now, it was thought that dendritic antigen presenting cells of epidermis (Langerhans cells) were replaced by circulating bone marrow derived precursors. Here we show by immunostaining studies of timed biopsies taken from(More)
The balance between regulatory and effector functions is important for maintaining efficient immune responses, while avoiding autoimmunity. The inflammatory skin disease psoriasis is sustained by the ongoing activation of pathogenic effector T cells. We found that a CD4(+) T lymphocyte subpopulation in peripheral blood, phenotypically CD25(high), CTLA-4(+),(More)
BACKGROUND Acute renal allograft rejection contributes to patient morbidity. Standard immunosuppressives are only partially effective and have significant side effects. Extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) has been effective in reversing the acute rejection process. T cell cytokine expression is implicated in rejection and tolerance but actual changes in the(More)
Autoimmune diseases are initiated when patients develop aberrant T and/or B cell responses against self proteins. These responses presumably are directed to single immunogenic epitopes on these proteins. Recent data in animal models of autoimmune diseases suggest that the targets of immune responses in autoimmunity do not remain fixed, but can be extended(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the long-term effects of recombinant human interferon gamma treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD). DESIGN Case series. Patients were treated for up to 24 months. SETTING University dermatology outpatient clinics in Ann Arbor, Mich, and Portland, Ore. PATIENTS Twenty-four of 32 eligible patients who participated in a previously(More)