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PURPOSE The role of adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with high-risk urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB) is not well defined. Here we address the value of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients undergoing radical cystectomy for UCB in an off-protocol routine clinical setting. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN We collected and analyzed data from 11 centers(More)
Urothelial carcinoma of the bladder is a common malignancy that causes approximately 150,000 deaths per year worldwide. To date, no molecularly targeted agents have been approved for the disease. As part of The Cancer Genome Atlas project, we report here an integrated analysis of 131 urothelial carcinomas to provide a comprehensive landscape of molecular(More)
Cytotoxic chemotherapy is effective in debulking tumour masses initially; however, in some patients tumours become progressively unresponsive after multiple treatment cycles. Previous studies have demonstrated that cancer stem cells (CSCs) are selectively enriched after chemotherapy through enhanced survival. Here we reveal a new mechanism by which bladder(More)
Current clinical judgment in bladder cancer (BC) relies primarily on pathological stage and grade. We investigated whether a molecular classification of tumor cell differentiation, based on a developmental biology approach, can provide additional prognostic information. Exploiting large preexisting gene-expression databases, we developed a biologically(More)
BACKGROUND Updated National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry Laboratory Medicine Practice Guidelines for the use of tumor markers in the clinic have been developed. METHODS Published reports relevant to use of tumor markers for 4 cancer sites--liver, bladder, cervical, and gastric--were critically reviewed. RESULTS Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) may be used in(More)
Genome-wide and candidate-gene association studies of bladder cancer have identified 10 susceptibility loci thus far. We conducted a meta-analysis of two previously published genome-wide scans (4501 cases and 6076 controls of European background) and followed up the most significant association signals [17 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 10(More)
PURPOSE The study aims to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of fenretinide in preventing tumor recurrence in patients with transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN We conducted a multicenter phase III, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of fenretinide (200 mg/day orally for 12 months) in patients with non-muscle-invasive(More)
Long-term effects of lesions were analyzed in terms of gene expression. Nine months after unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesions of the substantia nigra pars compacta (s. nigra), the remaining dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons (tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) cells determined by immunocytochemistry (ICC] on the lesioned side were atrophic with smaller(More)
BACKGROUND Intravesical chemotherapy (i.e., placement of the drug directly in the bladder) with mitomycin C is beneficial for patients with superficial bladder cancer who are at high risk of recurrence, but standard therapy is empirically based and patient response rates have been variable, in part because of inadequate drug delivery. We carried out a(More)
Candidate gene and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 11 independent susceptibility loci associated with bladder cancer risk. To discover additional risk variants, we conducted a new GWAS of 2422 bladder cancer cases and 5751 controls, followed by a meta-analysis with two independently published bladder cancer GWAS, resulting in a(More)