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Cytotoxic chemotherapy is effective in debulking tumour masses initially; however, in some patients tumours become progressively unresponsive after multiple treatment cycles. Previous studies have demonstrated that cancer stem cells (CSCs) are selectively enriched after chemotherapy through enhanced survival. Here we reveal a new mechanism by which bladder(More)
Urothelial carcinoma of the bladder is a common malignancy that causes approximately 150,000 deaths per year worldwide. So far, no molecularly targeted agents have been approved for treatment of the disease. As part of The Cancer Genome Atlas project, we report here an integrated analysis of 131 urothelial carcinomas to provide a comprehensive landscape of(More)
Current clinical judgment in bladder cancer (BC) relies primarily on pathological stage and grade. We investigated whether a molecular classification of tumor cell differentiation, based on a developmental biology approach, can provide additional prognostic information. Exploiting large preexisting gene-expression databases, we developed a biologically(More)
Long-term effects of lesions were analyzed in terms of gene expression. Nine months after unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesions of the substantia nigra pars compacta (s. nigra), the remaining dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons (tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) cells determined by immunocytochemistry (ICC] on the lesioned side were atrophic with smaller(More)
Using in situ hybridization histochemistry, corticotropin-releasing hormone gene expression is first detectable in the parvocellular portion of the rat paraventricular nucleus on the 17th fetal day. The prevalence of messenger RNA for corticotropin releasing hormone decreases perinatally, specifically between the 19th and 21st fetal days. By the 4th(More)
Polymorphisms in nucleotide excision repair (NER) genes may cause variations in DNA repair capacity and increase susceptibility to bladder cancer through complex gene-gene and gene-smoking interactions. We applied two data mining approaches to explore high-order gene-gene and gene-environment interactions among 13 polymorphisms in nine major NER genes in(More)
Candidate gene and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 11 independent susceptibility loci associated with bladder cancer risk. To discover additional risk variants, we conducted a new GWAS of 2422 bladder cancer cases and 5751 controls, followed by a meta-analysis with two independently published bladder cancer GWAS, resulting in a(More)
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have mapped risk alleles for at least 10 distinct cancers to a small region of 63 000 bp on chromosome 5p15.33. This region harbors the TERT and CLPTM1L genes; the former encodes the catalytic subunit of telomerase reverse transcriptase and the latter may play a role in apoptosis. To investigate further the genetic(More)
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Introduction: Accurate estimates of risk are essential for physicians if they are to recommend a specific management to patients with bladder cancer. In this review, we discuss the criteria for the evaluation of nomograms and review current available nomograms for advanced bladder cancer. Methods: A retrospective review of the Pubmed database between 2002(More)