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The retinoblastoma (Rb) protein negatively regulates the G1-S transition by binding to the E2F transcription factors, until cyclin-dependent kinases phosphorylate Rb, causing E2F release. The Rb pocket domain is necessary for E2F binding, but the Rb C-terminal domain (RbC) is also required for growth suppression. Here we demonstrate a high-affinity(More)
Inactivation of the RB protein is one of the most fundamental events in cancer. Coming to a molecular understanding of its function in normal cells and how it impedes cancer development has been challenging. Historically, the ability of RB to regulate the cell cycle placed it in a central role in proliferative control, and research focused on RB regulation(More)
Multisite phosphorylation of proteins has been proposed to transform a graded protein kinase signal into an ultrasensitive switch-like response. Although many multiphosphorylated targets have been identified, the dynamics and sequence of individual phosphorylation events within the multisite phosphorylation process have never been thoroughly studied. In(More)
Multisite phosphorylation modulates the function of regulatory proteins with complex signaling properties and outputs. The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (Rb) is inactivated by cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) phosphorylation in normal and cancer cell cycles, so understanding the molecular mechanisms and effects of Rb phosphorylation is imperative. Rb(More)
DNA replication fork stalling poses a major threat to genome stability. This is counteracted in part by the intra-S phase checkpoint, which stabilizes arrested replication machinery, prevents cell-cycle progression and promotes DNA repair. The checkpoint kinase Mec1/ATR and RecQ helicase Sgs1/BLM contribute synergistically to fork maintenance on hydroxyurea(More)
The detection of biological molecules and their interactions is a significant component of modern biomedical research. In current biosensor technologies, simultaneous detection is limited to a small number of analytes by the spectral overlap of their signals. We have developed an NMR-based xenon biosensor that capitalizes on the enhanced signal-to-noise,(More)
The order and timing of cell-cycle events is controlled by changing substrate specificity and different activity thresholds of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). However, it is not understood how a single protein kinase can trigger hundreds of switches in a sufficiently time-resolved fashion. We show that cyclin-Cdk1-Cks1-dependent phosphorylation of(More)
Cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) phosphorylation of the Retinoblastoma protein (Rb) drives cell proliferation through inhibition of Rb complexes with E2F transcription factors and other regulatory proteins. We present the first structures of phosphorylated Rb that reveal the mechanism of its inactivation. S608 phosphorylation orders a flexible "pocket" domain(More)
Cks is an evolutionarily conserved protein that regulates cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) activity. Clarifying the underlying mechanisms and cellular contexts of Cks function is critical because Cks is essential for proper cell growth, and its overexpression has been linked to cancer. We observe that budding-yeast Cks associates with select phosphorylated(More)
NMR-based biosensors that utilize laser-polarized xenon offer potential advantages beyond current sensing technologies. These advantages include the capacity to simultaneously detect multiple analytes, the applicability to in vivo spectroscopy and imaging, and the possibility of "remote" amplified detection. Here, we present a detailed NMR characterization(More)