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Upon ligand binding, RIPK1 is recruited to tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily (TNFRSF) and Toll-like receptor (TLR) complexes promoting prosurvival and inflammatory signaling. RIPK1 also directly regulates caspase-8-mediated apoptosis or, if caspase-8 activity is blocked, RIPK3-MLKL-dependent necroptosis. We show that C57BL/6 Ripk1(-/-) mice die at(More)
RIPK3 and its substrate MLKL are essential for necroptosis, a lytic cell death proposed to cause inflammation via the release of intracellular molecules. Whether and how RIPK3 might drive inflammation in a manner independent of MLKL and cell lysis remains unclear. Here we show that following LPS treatment, or LPS-induced necroptosis, the TLR adaptor protein(More)
Gain-of-function mutations that activate the innate immune system can cause systemic autoinflammatory diseases associated with increased IL-1β production. This cytokine is activated identically to IL-18 by an intracellular protein complex known as the inflammasome; however, IL-18 has not yet been specifically implicated in the pathogenesis of hereditary(More)
Pyrin responds to pathogen signals and loss of cellular homeostasis by forming an inflammasome complex that drives the cleavage and secretion of interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Mutations in the B30.2/SPRY domain cause pathogen-independent activation of pyrin and are responsible for the autoinflammatory disease familial Mediterranean fever (FMF). We studied a family(More)
The four mammalian SPRY domain-containing SOCS box proteins (SSB-1 to SSB-4) are characterized by a C-terminal SOCS box and a central SPRY domain. We have determined the first SPRY-domain structure, as part of SSB-2, by NMR. This domain adopts a novel fold consisting of a beta-sandwich structure formed by two four-stranded antiparallel beta-sheets with a(More)
Inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS; NOS2) produces NO and related reactive nitrogen species, which are critical effectors of the innate host response and are required for the intracellular killing of pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Leishmania major. We have identified SPRY domain-containing SOCS (suppressor of cytokine signaling)(More)
Blocking the cytokines Interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) and Interleukin-18 (IL-18) benefits a diverse range of inflammatory pathologies. In each of these diseases, different cytoplasmic innate immune receptors nucleate individual protein complexes known as inflammasomes, to regulate the production of active IL-1β or IL-18. This review will outline the complex(More)
The four mammalian SPRY (a sequence repeat in dual-specificity kinase splA and ryanodine receptors) domain-containing suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS) box proteins (SSB-1 to -4) are characterised by a C-terminal SOCS box and a central SPRY domain. The latter is a protein interaction module found in over 1600 proteins, with more than 70 encoded in(More)
UNLABELLED Induction of immunity that limits Toxoplasma gondii infection in mice is critically dependent on the activation of the innate immune response. In this study, we investigated the role of cytoplasmic nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat containing a pyrin domain (NLRP) inflammasome sensors during acute toxoplasmosis in mice. We show(More)
The SPRY domain was identified originally as a sequence repeat in the dual-specificity kinase splA and ryanodine receptors and subsequently found in many other distinct proteins, including more than 70 encoded in the human genome. It is a subdomain of the B30.2/SPRY domain and is believed to function as a protein-protein interaction module.(More)