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Many phenomena of biological, physical, and chemical importance involve synchronization of oscillatory elements. We explore here, in several geometries, the behavior of diffusively coupled, nanoliter volume, aqueous drops separated by oil gaps and containing the reactants of the oscillatory BelousovZhabotinsky (BZ) reaction. A variety of synchronous regimes(More)
We have prepared a homologous series of ­ lamentous viruses with varying contour length using molecular cloning techniques. These viruses are monodisperse enough to form a stable smectic phase. Two systems are studied. The ­ rst system consists of viruses to the surfaces of which the polymers are covalently bound. Through studies of the(More)
‡ These authors contributed equally to this work. § Present address: Genome Integrity and Structural Biology Laboratory, National Institute of Environmental Health Science, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA. } Present address: Center for Free Electron Laser Science, University of Hamburg and DESY, Hamburg, Germany. ‡‡ Present address: Linac Coherent Light(More)
Aqueous suspensions of mixtures of the rodlike virus tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) with globular macromolecules such as polyethylene oxide (PEO) or bovine serum albumin (BSA) phase separate and exhibit rich and strikingly similar phase behavior. Isotropic, nematic, lamellar, and crystalline phases are observed as a function of the concentration of the(More)
We report measurements of the cholesteric pitch and twist elastic constant (K22) in monodisperse suspensions of the rodlike virus filamentous bacteriophage fd. Measurements were taken for concentrations spanning the entire cholesteric region at several ionic strengths and temperatures. In the limit of high ionic strength the cholesteric pitch (P0) scales(More)
A method is presented for determining second virial coefficients (B(2)) of protein solutions from retention time measurements in size exclusion chromatography. We determine B(2) by analyzing the concentration dependence of the chromatographic partition coefficient. We show the ability of this method to track the evolution of B(2) from positive to negative(More)
We describe a single microfluidic device and two methods for the passive storage of aqueous drops in a continuous stream of oil without any external control but hydrodynamic flow. Advantages of this device are that it is simple to manufacture, robust under operation, and drops never come into contact with each other, making it unnecessary to stabilize drops(More)
The orientational distribution function of the nematic phase of suspensions of the semiflexible rodlike virus fd is measured by x-ray diffraction as a function of concentration and ionic strength. X-ray diffraction from a single-domain nematic phase of fd is influenced by interparticle correlations at low angle, while only intraparticle scatter contributes(More)
An emulsion-based serial crystallographic technology has been developed, in which nanolitre-sized droplets of protein solution are encapsulated in oil and stabilized by surfactant. Once the first crystal in a drop is nucleated, the small volume generates a negative feedback mechanism that lowers the supersaturation. This mechanism is exploited to produce(More)