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For many infectious disease processes such as emerging zoonoses and vaccine-preventable diseases, [Formula: see text] and infections occur as self-limited stuttering transmission chains. A mechanistic understanding of transmission is essential for characterizing the risk of emerging diseases and monitoring spatio-temporal dynamics. Thus methods for(More)
The Tethered Particle Motion (TPM) method has been used to observe and characterize a variety of protein-DNA interactions including DNA looping and transcription. TPM experiments exploit the Brownian motion of a DNA-tethered bead to probe biologically relevant conformational changes of the tether. In these experiments, a change in the extent of the bead's(More)
BACKGROUND Measles cases continue to occur among susceptible individuals despite the elimination of endemic measles transmission in the United States. Clustering of disease susceptibility can threaten herd immunity and impact the likelihood of disease outbreaks in a highly vaccinated population. Previous studies have examined the role of contact tracing to(More)
Studies on the burden of human monkeypox in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) were last conducted from 1981 to 1986. Since then, the population that is immunologically naïve to orthopoxviruses has increased significantly due to cessation of mass smallpox vaccination campaigns. To assess the current risk of infection, we analyzed human monkeypox(More)
In many cases, transcriptional regulation involves the binding of transcription factors at sites on the DNA that are not immediately adjacent to the promoter of interest. This action at a distance is often mediated by the formation of DNA loops: Binding at two or more sites on the DNA results in the formation of a loop, which can bring the transcription(More)
We have applied tethered particle microscopy (TPM) as a single molecule analysis tool to studies of the conformational dynamics of poly-uridine(U) messenger (m)RNA and 16S ribosomal (r)RNA molecules. Using stroboscopic total internal reflection illumination and rigorous selection criteria to distinguish from nonspecific tethering, we have tracked the(More)
Tethered particle microscopy is a powerful tool to study the dynamics of DNA molecules and DNA-protein complexes in single-molecule experiments. We demonstrate that stroboscopic total internal reflection microscopy can be used to characterize the three-dimensional spatiotemporal motion of DNA-tethered particles. By calculating characteristic measures such(More)
Although the incidence of human monkeypox has greatly increased in Central Africa over the last decade, resources for surveillance remain extremely limited. We conducted a geospatial analysis using existing data to better inform future surveillance efforts. Using active surveillance data collected between 2005 and 2007, we identified locations in Sankuru(More)
2 studies are reported in which 12-13-year-old girls, half of whom were premenarcheal and half post-menarcheal, responded to pictures of infants. In study 1, the 40 postmenarcheal girls preferred pictures of infants to those of adults more often than did their 40 premenarcheal peers. In the second study, 20 boys, 20 premenarcheal girls, and 20(More)
The recent increase in measles cases in California may raise questions regarding the continuing success of measles control. To determine whether the dynamics of measles is qualitatively different in comparison to previous years, we assess whether the 2014-2015 measles outbreak associated with an Anaheim theme park is consistent with subcriticality by(More)