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The crystal structure of Thermus aquaticus RNA polymerase holoenzyme (alpha2betabeta'omegasigmaA) complexed with a fork-junction promoter DNA fragment has been determined by fitting high-resolution x-ray structures of individual components into a 6.5-angstrom resolution map. The DNA lies across one face of the holoenzyme, completely outside the RNA(More)
The X-ray crystal structure of Thermus aquaticus core RNA polymerase reveals a "crab claw"-shaped molecule with a 27 A wide internal channel. Located on the back wall of the channel is a Mg2+ ion required for catalytic activity, which is chelated by an absolutely conserved motif from all bacterial and eukaryotic cellular RNA polymerases. The structure(More)
The crystal structure of the initiating form of Thermus aquaticus RNA polymerase, containing core RNA polymerase (alpha2betabeta'omega) and the promoter specificity sigma subunit, has been determined at 4 angstrom resolution. Important structural features of the RNA polymerase and their roles in positioning sigma within the initiation complex are(More)
Rifampicin (Rif) is one of the most potent and broad spectrum antibiotics against bacterial pathogens and is a key component of anti-tuberculosis therapy, stemming from its inhibition of the bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP). We determined the crystal structure of Thermus aquaticus core RNAP complexed with Rif. The inhibitor binds in a pocket of the RNAP beta(More)
Recent structural and biophysical results have provided unprecedented insights into the structure and function of the bacterial RNA polymerase holoenzyme as it goes through the steps of transcription initiation. Comparisons with structural analyses of evolutionarily unrelated RNA polymerases reveal unexpected general features of the initiation process.
The sigma subunit is the key regulator of bacterial transcription. Proteolysis of Thermus aquaticus sigma(A), which occurred in situ during crystallization, reveals three domains, sigma(2), sigma(3), and sigma(4), connected by flexible linkers. Crystal structures of each domain were determined, as well as of sigma(4) complexed with -35 element DNA. Exposed(More)
A transcriptional response to singlet oxygen in Rhodobacter sphaeroides is controlled by the group IV sigma factor sigma(E) and its cognate anti-sigma ChrR. Crystal structures of the sigma(E)/ChrR complex reveal a modular, two-domain architecture for ChrR. The ChrR N-terminal anti-sigma domain (ASD) binds a Zn(2+) ion, contacts sigma(E), and is sufficient(More)
Streptavidin forms two-dimensional crystals when specifically bound to layers of biotinylated lipids at the air/water interface. The three-dimensional structure of streptavidin determined from the crystals by electron crystallography corresponds well with the structure determined by x-ray crystallography. Comparison of the electron and x-ray(More)
The 2.6 A crystal structure of a fragment of the sigma 70 promoter specificity subunit of E. coli RNA polymerase is described. Residues involved in core RNA polymerase binding lie on one face of the structure. On the opposite face, aligned along one helix, are exposed residues that interact with the -10 consensus promoter element (the Pribnow box),(More)
Formation of microtubule architectures, required for cell shape maintenance in yeast, directional cell expansion in plants and cytokinesis in eukaryotes, depends on antiparallel microtubule crosslinking by the conserved MAP65 protein family. Here, we combine structural and single molecule fluorescence methods to examine how PRC1, the human MAP65, crosslinks(More)