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Extracellular enzymes are the proximate agents of organic matter decomposition and measures of these activities can be used as indicators of microbial nutrient demand. We conducted a global-scale meta-analysis of the seven-most widely measured soil enzyme activities, using data from 40 ecosystems. The activities of beta-1,4-glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase,(More)
  • S D Frey, bullet S Ollinger, bullet K Nadelhoffer, bullet R Bowden, bullet E Brzostek, bullet A Burton +14 others
  • 2014
The terrestrial biosphere sequesters up to a third of annual anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions , offsetting a substantial portion of greenhouse gas forcing of the climate system. Although a number of factors are responsible for this terrestrial carbon sink, atmospheric nitrogen deposition contributes by enhancing tree productivity and promoting carbon(More)
Hartley et al. question whether reduction in R mass , under experimental warming, arises because of the biomass method. We show the method they treat as independent yields the same result. We describe why the substrate-depletion hypothesis may not solely explain observed responses, and urge caution in interpretation of the seasonal data. Ecology Letters(More)
Soil microbes are major drivers of soil carbon cycling, yet we lack an understanding of how climate warming will affect microbial communities. Three ongoing field studies at the Harvard Forest Long-term Ecological Research (LTER) site (Petersham, MA) have warmed soils 5°C above ambient temperatures for 5, 8, and 20 years. We used this chronosequence to test(More)
Many global change drivers chronically alter resource availability in terrestrial ecosystems. Such resource alterations are known to affect aboveground net primary production (ANPP) in the short term; however, it is unknown if patterns of response change through time. We examined the magnitude, direction, and pattern of ANPP responses to a wide range of(More)
Soil organic matter (SOM) and the carbon and nutrients therein drive fundamental submicron- to global-scale biogeochemical processes and influence carbon-climate feedbacks. Consensus is emerging that microbial materials are an important constituent of stable SOM, and new conceptual and quantitative SOM models are rapidly incorporating this view. However,(More)
The respiratory release of carbon dioxide (CO2) from soil is a major yet poorly understood flux in the global carbon cycle. Climatic warming is hypothesized to increase rates of soil respiration, potentially fueling further increases in global temperatures. However, despite considerable scientific attention in recent decades, the overall response of soil(More)
The majority of the Earth's terrestrial carbon is stored in the soil. If anthropogenic warming stimulates the loss of this carbon to the atmosphere, it could drive further planetary warming. Despite evidence that warming enhances carbon fluxes to and from the soil, the net global balance between these responses remains uncertain. Here we present a(More)