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We have developed a simple and efficient procedure for adding an epitope-encoding tail to one or more genes of interest in the bacterial chromosome. The procedure is a modification of the gene replacement method of Datsenko and Wanner [Datsenko, K. A. & Wanner, B. L. (2000) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 6640-6645]. A DNA module that begins with the(More)
Genetic variation within the male-specific portion of the Y chromosome (MSY) can clarify the origins of contemporary populations, but previous studies were hampered by partial genetic information. Population sequencing of 1204 Sardinian males identified 11,763 MSY single-nucleotide polymorphisms, 6751 of which have not previously been observed. We(More)
Salmonella constitutes a genus of zoonotic bacteria of worldwide economic and health importance. The current view of salmonella taxonomy assigns the members of this genus to two species : S. enterica and S. bongori. S. enterica itself is divided into six subspecies, enterica, salamae, arizonae, diarizonae, indica, and houtenae, also known as subspecies I,(More)
Gene transfer between separate lineages of a bacterial pathogen can promote recombinational divergence and the emergence of new pathogenic variants. Temperate bacteriophages, by virtue of their ability to carry foreign DNA, are potential key players in this process. Our previous work has shown that representative strains of Salmonella typhimurium (LT2,(More)
To evade host resistance mechanisms, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (STM), a facultative intracellular pathogen, must alter its proteome following macrophage infection. To identify new colonization and virulence factors that mediate STM pathogenesis, we have isolated STM cells from RAW 264.7 macrophages at various time points following infection(More)
The complex network of specialized cells and molecules in the immune system has evolved to defend against pathogens, but inadvertent immune system attacks on "self" result in autoimmune disease. Both genetic regulation of immune cell levels and their relationships with autoimmunity are largely undetermined. Here, we report genetic contributions to(More)
Intercellular tight junctions are dynamic structures involved in vectorial transport of water and electrolytes across the intestinal epithelium. Zonula occludens toxin derived from Vibrio cholerae interacts with a specific intestinal epithelial surface receptor, with subsequent activation of a complex intracellular cascade of events that regulate tight(More)
We identified zonulin, a novel human protein analogue to the Vibrio cholerae derived Zonula occludens toxin, which induces tight junction disassembly and a subsequent increase in intestinal permeability in non-human primate intestinal epithelia. Zonulin expression was raised in intestinal tissues during the acute phase of coeliac disease, a clinical(More)
The intracellular signaling involved in the mechanism of action of zonula occludens toxin (ZOT) was studied using several in vitro and ex vivo models. ZOT showed a selective effect among various cell lines tested, suggesting that it may interact with a specific receptor, whose surface expression on various cells differs. When tested in IEC6 cell monolayers,(More)
Zonula occludens toxin (Zot) is an enterotoxin elaborated by Vibrio cholerae that increases intestinal permeability by interacting with a mammalian cell receptor with subsequent activation of intracellular signaling leading to the disassembly of the intercellular tight junctions. Zot localizes in the bacterial outer membrane of V. cholerae with subsequent(More)