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Oxidative stress is a major aspect of Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology. We have investigated the relationship between oxidative stress and neuronal binding of Abeta oligomers (also known as ADDLs). ADDLs are known to accumulate in brain tissue of AD patients and are considered centrally related to pathogenesis. Using hippocampal neuronal cultures, we found(More)
Soluble amyloid β-peptide oligomers (AβOs), increasingly recognized as causative agents of Alzheimer's disease (AD), disrupt neuronal Ca(2+) homeostasis and synaptic function. Here, we report that AβOs at sublethal concentrations generate prolonged Ca(2+) signals in primary hippocampal neurons; incubation in Ca(2+)-free solutions, inhibition of ryanodine(More)
Synapse deterioration underlying severe memory loss in early Alzheimer's disease (AD) is thought to be caused by soluble amyloid beta (Abeta) oligomers. Mechanistically, soluble Abeta oligomers, also referred to as Abeta-derived diffusible ligands (ADDLs), act as highly specific pathogenic ligands, binding to sites localized at particular synapses. This(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) and type 2 diabetes appear to share similar pathogenic mechanisms. dsRNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) underlies peripheral insulin resistance in metabolic disorders. PKR phosphorylates eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α-P), and AD brains exhibit elevated phospho-PKR and eIF2α-P levels. Whether and how PKR and(More)
Defective brain insulin signaling has been suggested to contribute to the cognitive deficits in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although a connection between AD and diabetes has been suggested, a major unknown is the mechanism(s) by which insulin resistance in the brain arises in individuals with AD. Here, we show that serine phosphorylation of(More)
Brain accumulation of soluble amyloid-β oligomers (AβOs) has been implicated in synapse failure and cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, whether and how oligomers of different sizes induce synapse dysfunction is a matter of controversy. Here, we report that low-molecular-weight (LMW) and high-molecular-weight (HMW) Aβ oligomers(More)
Disruption of fast axonal transport (FAT) is an early pathological event in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Soluble amyloid-β oligomers (AβOs), increasingly recognized as proximal neurotoxins in AD, impair organelle transport in cultured neurons and transgenic mouse models. AβOs also stimulate hyperphosphorylation of the axonal microtubule-associated protein,(More)
Disruption of axonal transport is a hallmark of several neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Even though defective transport is considered an early pathologic event, the mechanisms by which neurodegenerative insults impact transport are poorly understood. We show that soluble oligomers of the amyloid-beta peptide (AbetaOs),(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in the elderly. Memory loss in AD is increasingly attributed to soluble oligomers of the amyloid-β peptide (AβOs), toxins that accumulate in AD brains and target particular synapses. Glutamate receptors appear to be centrally involved in synaptic targeting by AβOs. Once bound to neurons, AβOs(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the 3rd most costly disease and the leading cause of dementia. It can linger for many years, but ultimately is fatal, the 6th leading cause of death. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is fatal and affected individuals can sometimes linger many years. Current treatments are palliative and transient, not disease modifying. This article(More)