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Several psychiatric disorders are associated with white matter defects, suggesting that oligodendrocyte (OL) abnormalities underlie some aspects of these diseases. Neuregulin 1 (NRG1) and its receptor, erbB4, are genetically linked with susceptibility to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. In vitro studies suggest that NRG1-erbB signaling is important for(More)
OBJECTIVE Heterozygous mutations in the GBA1 gene elevate the risk of Parkinson disease and dementia with Lewy bodies; both disorders are characterized by misprocessing of α-synuclein (SNCA). A loss in lysosomal acid-β-glucosidase enzyme (GCase) activity due to biallelic GBA1 mutations underlies Gaucher disease. We explored mechanisms for the gene's(More)
Signaling by the Notch1 receptor is critical for the formation of radial glia in the developing nervous system. We have shown previously that Notch1 regulates the molecular and morphological differentiation of radial glia through the transcriptional activation of at least two genes, brain lipid binding protein (BLBP) and the erbB2 receptor tyrosine kinase.(More)
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a neuromuscular disease caused by a deficiency of survival motor neuron (SMN) due to mutations in the SMN1 gene. In this study, an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector expressing human SMN (AAV8-hSMN) was injected at birth into the CNS of mice modeling SMA. Western blot analysis showed that these injections resulted in(More)
Deposition of α-synuclein aggregates occurs widely in the central and peripheral nervous systems in Parkinson's disease (PD). Although recent evidence has suggested that cell-to-cell transmission of α-synuclein aggregates is associated with the progression of PD, the mechanism by which α-synuclein aggregates spread remains undefined. Here, we show that(More)
Heterozygous mutations in the glucocerebrosidase gene (GBA1) are associated with increased risk for α-synuclein aggregation disorders ('synucleinopathies'), which include Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Homozygous GBA1 mutations lead to reduced GBA1 lysosomal activity underlying three variants of Gaucher disease (GD). Despite(More)
Embryonic multipotent neural precursors are exposed to extracellular signals instructing them to adopt different fates, neuronal or glial. However, the mechanisms by which precursors integrate these signals to make timely fate choices remained undefined. Here we show that direct nuclear signaling by a receptor tyrosine kinase inhibits the responses of(More)
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disorder caused by mutations in the SMN1 gene that result in a deficiency of SMN protein. One approach to treat SMA is to use antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) to redirect the splicing of a paralogous gene, SMN2, to boost production of functional SMN. Injection of a(More)
BACKGROUND To establish whether Parkinson's disease (PD) brains previously described to have decreased glucocerebrosidase activity exhibit accumulation of the lysosomal enzyme's substrate, glucosylceramide, or other changes in lipid composition. METHODS Lipidomic analyses and cholesterol measurements were performed on the putamen (n = 5-7) and cerebellum(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) has been attributed to a combination of genetic and nongenetic factors. We studied a set of monozygotic twins harboring the heterozygous glucocerebrosidase mutation (GBA N370S) but clinically discordant for PD. We applied induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology for PD disease modeling using the twins' fibroblasts to evaluate(More)