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Protons dictate the charge and structure of macromolecules and are used as energy currency by eukaryotic cells. The unique function of individual organelles therefore depends on the establishment and… Expand
Electrostatic interactions with negatively charged membranes contribute to the subcellular targeting of proteins with polybasic clusters or cationic domains. Although the anionic phospholipid… Expand
Professional phagocytes have a vast and sophisticated arsenal of microbicidal features. They are capable of ingesting and destroying invading organisms, and can present microbial antigens on their… Expand
Engulfment and destruction of invading microorganisms by phagocytosis are critical components of the innate immune response. In addition, phagocytosis is also required for the clearance of apoptotic… Expand
Sodium/proton antiporters or exchangers (NHE) are integral membrane proteins present in most, if not all, living organisms. In mammals, these transporters chiefly catalyze the electroneutral exchange… Expand
The luminal pH of the secretory pathway plays a critical role in the posttranslational modification and sorting of proteins and lipids. The pH of each one of the organelles that constitute the… Expand
Foreign particles and apoptotic bodies are eliminated from the body by phagocytic leucocytes. The initial stage of the elimination process is the internalization of the particles into a plasma… Expand
Inhibitors of Na+/H+ exchange proteins block macropinocytosis by lowering the pH near the plasma membrane, which in turn inhibits actin remodeling by Rho family GTPases.
Phagocytosis requires localized and transient remodeling of actin filaments. Phosphoinositide signaling is believed to play an important role in cytoskeletal organization, but it is unclear whether… Expand
Autophagy plays an important role in immunity to microbial pathogens. The autophagy system can target bacteria in phagosomes, promoting phagosome maturation and preventing pathogen escape into the… Expand