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The progressive loss of CNS myelin in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) has been proposed to result from the combined effects of damage to oligodendrocytes and failure of remyelination. A common feature of demyelinated lesions is the presence of oligodendrocyte precursors (OLPs) blocked at a premyelinating stage. However, the mechanistic basis for(More)
Changes in cellular functions in response to drug therapy are mediated by specific transcriptional profiles resulting from the induction or repression in the activity of a number of genes, thereby modifying the preexisting gene activity pattern of the drug-targeted cell(s). Recombinant human interferon beta (rIFNbeta) is routinely used to control(More)
Multiple sclerosis is a common disease of the central nervous system in which the interplay between inflammatory and neurodegenerative processes typically results in intermittent neurological disturbance followed by progressive accumulation of disability. Epidemiological studies have shown that genetic factors are primarily responsible for the substantially(More)
The developmental process of myelination and the adult regenerative process of remyelination share the common objective of investing nerve axons with myelin sheaths. A central question in myelin biology is the extent to which the mechanisms of these two processes are conserved, a concept encapsulated in the recapitulation hypothesis of remyelination. This(More)
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) testing several hundred thousand SNPs have been performed in multiple sclerosis (MS) and other complex diseases. Typically, the number of markers in which the evidence for association exceeds the genome-wide significance threshold is very small, and markers that do not exceed this threshold are generally neglected.(More)
Monozygotic or 'identical' twins have been widely studied to dissect the relative contributions of genetics and environment in human diseases. In multiple sclerosis (MS), an autoimmune demyelinating disease and common cause of neurodegeneration and disability in young adults, disease discordance in monozygotic twins has been interpreted to indicate(More)
Multiple sclerosis is a demyelinating disease, characterized by inflammation in the brain and spinal cord, possibly due to autoimmunity. Large-scale sequencing of cDNA libraries, derived from plaques dissected from brains of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), indicated an abundance of transcripts for osteopontin (OPN). Microarray analysis of spinal(More)
Permanent damage to white matter tracts, comprising axons and myelinating oligodendrocytes, is an important component of brain injuries of the newborn that cause cerebral palsy and cognitive disabilities, as well as multiple sclerosis in adults. However, regulatory factors relevant in human developmental myelin disorders and in myelin regeneration are(More)
Recent advances in molecular biology, neurobiology, genetics, and imaging have demonstrated important insights about the nature of neurological diseases. However, a comprehensive understanding of their pathogenesis is still lacking. Although reductionism has been successful in enumerating and characterizing the components of most living organisms, it has(More)
Differences in gene expression patterns have been documented not only in Multiple Sclerosis patients versus healthy controls but also in the relapse of the disease. Recently a new gene expression modulator has been identified: the microRNA or miRNA. The aim of this work is to analyze the possible role of miRNAs in multiple sclerosis, focusing on the relapse(More)