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Increasing evidence suggests that antagonistic interactions between specific subtypes of adenosine and dopamine receptors in the basal ganglia are involved in the motor depressant effects of adenosine receptor agonists and the motor stimulant effects of adenosine receptor antagonists, such as caffeine. The GABAergic striatopallidal neurons are regulated by(More)
There has been a long debate about the predominant involvement of the different adenosine receptor subtypes and the preferential role of pre- versus post-synaptic mechanisms in the psychostimulant effects of the adenosine receptor antagonist caffeine. Both striatal A(1) and A(2A) receptors are involved in the motor-activating and probably reinforcing(More)
Previous studies have demonstrated opposing roles for adenosine A1 and A2A receptors in the modulation of extracellular levels of glutamate and dopamine in the striatum. In the present study, acute systemic administration of motor-activating doses of the A2A receptor antagonist MSX-3 significantly decreased extracellular levels of dopamine and glutamate in(More)
The systemic intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of the adenosine A2A agonist CGS 21680 was found to dose-dependently antagonize spontaneous and amphetamine-induced (1 mg/kg i.p.) motor activity with similar ED50 values (about 0.2 mg/kg). The ratios between the ED50 values for induction of catalepsy and for antagonizing amphetamine-induced motor activity(More)
The ventral striatum is included in brain circuits which connect brain areas classically ascribed to the motor or to the limbic system. In fact, the ventral striatum is involved in the connection between motivationally relevant stimuli and adaptive behaviours. Dopamine neurotransmission in the ventral striatum is essential for the increase in motor activity(More)
The physiological meaning of the coexpression of adenosine A2A receptors and group I metabotropic glutamate receptors in gamma- aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic striatal neurons is intriguing. Here we provide in vitro and in vivo evidence for a synergism between adenosine and glutamate based on subtype 5 metabotropic glutamate (mGluR5) and adenosine A2A (A2AR)(More)
Adenosine, by acting on adenosine A(1) and A(2A) receptors, exerts opposite modulatory roles on striatal extracellular levels of glutamate and dopamine, with activation of A(1) inhibiting and activation of A(2A) receptors stimulating glutamate and dopamine release. Adenosine-mediated modulation of striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission could be secondary(More)
Electrical stimulation techniques were employed in the chloral hydrate anaesthetized male rat to evaluate if the pontine noradrenergic nucleus locus coeruleus can influence the activity of midbrain dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area and zona compacta, substantia nigra. Single-pulse locus coeruleus stimulation evoked an excitation, followed by an(More)
The possible molecular basis for the previously described antagonistic interactions between adenosine A(1) receptors (A(1)R) and dopamine D(1) receptors (D(1)R) in the brain have been studied in mouse fibroblast Ltk(-) cells cotransfected with human A(1)R and D(1)R cDNAs or with human A(1)R and dopamine D(2) receptor (long-form) (D(2)R) cDNAs and in(More)
Adenosine A(2A)-dopamine D(2) receptor interactions play a very important role in striatal function. A(2A)-D(2) receptor interactions provide an example of the capabilities of information processing by just two different G protein-coupled receptors. Thus, there is evidence for the coexistence of two reciprocal antagonistic interactions between A(2A) and(More)