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We report the generation and analysis of functional data from multiple, diverse experiments performed on a targeted 1% of the human genome as part of the pilot phase of the ENCODE Project. These data have been further integrated and augmented by a number of evolutionary and computational analyses. Together, our results advance the collective knowledge about(More)
A key component of the ongoing ENCODE project involves rigorous comparative sequence analyses for the initially targeted 1% of the human genome. Here, we present orthologous sequence generation, alignment, and evolutionary constraint analyses of 23 mammalian species for all ENCODE targets. Alignments were generated using four different methods; comparisons(More)
BACKGROUND Resolving the phylogenetic relationships between eukaryotes is an ongoing challenge of evolutionary biology. In recent years, the accumulation of molecular data led to a new evolutionary understanding, in which all eukaryotic diversity has been classified into five or six supergroups. Yet, the composition of these large assemblages and their(More)
Understanding the early evolution of placental mammals is one of the most challenging issues in mammalian phylogeny. Here, we addressed this question by using the sequence data of the ENCODE consortium, which include 1% of mammalian genomes in 18 species belonging to all main mammalian lineages. Phylogenetic reconstructions based on an unprecedented amount(More)
A comprehensive phylogenetic framework is indispensable for investigating the evolution of genomic features in mammals as a whole, and particularly in humans. Using the ENCODE sequence data, we estimated mammalian neutral evolutionary rates and selective pressures acting on conserved coding and noncoding elements. We show that neutral evolutionary rates can(More)
Recent molecular phylogenetic studies have led to the erection of the phylum Amoebozoa, uniting naked and testate lobose amoebae, the mycetozoan slime moulds and amitochondriate amoeboid protists (Archamoebae). Molecular data together with ultrastructural evidence have suggested a close relationship between Mycetozoa and Archamoebae, classified together in(More)
Recent phylogenetic analyses based on different molecular markers have revealed the existence of the Cercozoa, a group of protists including such morphologically diverse taxa as the cercomonad flagellates, the euglyphid testate filose amoebae, the chloroplast-bearing chlorarachniophytes, and the plasmodiophorid plant pathogens. Molecular data also indicate(More)
Some neonates with Down syndrome (DS) are diagnosed with self-regressing transient myeloproliferative disorder (TMD), and 20% to 30% of those progress to acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL). We performed exome sequencing in 7 TMD/AMKL cases and copy-number analysis in these and 10 additional cases. All TMD/AMKL samples contained GATA1 mutations. No(More)
Oncogene-induced DNA replication stress is thought to drive genomic instability in cancer. In particular, replication stress can explain the high prevalence of focal genomic deletions mapping within very large genes in human tumors. However, the origin of single-nucleotide substitutions (SNS) in nonfamilial cancers is strongly debated. Some argue that(More)
Detection of the rare polymorphisms and causative mutations of genetic diseases in a targeted genomic area has become a major goal in order to understand genomic and phenotypic variability. We have interrogated repeat-masked regions of 8.9 Mb on human chromosomes 21 (7.8 Mb) and 7 (1.1 Mb) from an individual from the International HapMap Project (NA12872).(More)