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Hypertension promotes atherosclerosis and is a major source of morbidity and mortality. We show that mice lacking T and B cells (RAG-1-/- mice) have blunted hypertension and do not develop abnormalities of vascular function during angiotensin II infusion or desoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt. Adoptive transfer of T, but not B, cells restored these(More)
An essential cofactor for the endothelial NO synthase is tetrahydrobiopterin (H4B). In the present study, we show that in human endothelial cells, laminar shear stress dramatically increases H4B levels and enzymatic activity of GTP cyclohydrolase (GTPCH)-1, the first step of H4B biosynthesis. In contrast, protein levels of GTPCH-1 were not affected by(More)
Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) have been used successfully to reduce acquired immunodeficiency syndrome mortality. However, the use of these compounds is associated with numerous tissue toxicities, including cardiomyopathy. These studies address the effects of NRTIs on vascular function. Functional assays of contraction and relaxation(More)
Cardiac dysfunction following acute myocardial infarction is a major cause of death in the world and there is a compelling need for new therapeutic strategies. In this report we demonstrate that a direct cardiac injection of drug-loaded microparticles, formulated from the polymer poly(cyclohexane-1,4-diylacetone dimethylene ketal) (PCADK), improves cardiac(More)
We previously found that angiotensin II-induced hypertension increases vascular extracellular superoxide dismutase (ecSOD), and proposed that this is a compensatory mechanism that blunts the hypertensive response and preserves endothelium-dependent vasodilatation. To test this hypothesis, we studied ecSOD-deficient mice. ecSOD(-/-) and C57Blk/6 mice had(More)
In animal models of neurodegenerative diseases pathological changes vary with the type of organ and species of the animals. We studied differences in the mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in the liver (LM) and brain (BM) of Sprague Dawley rats and C57Bl mice. In the presence of ADP mouse LM and rat LM(More)
Protein levels and polymorphisms of p22(phox) have been suggested to modulate vascular NAD(P)H oxidase activity and vascular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We sought to determine whether increasing p22(phox) expression would alter vascular ROS production and hemodynamics by targeting p22(phox) expression to smooth muscle in transgenic (Tg)(More)
OBJECTIVE The cytosolic form of Cu/Zn-containing superoxide dismutase (SOD1) has peroxidase activity, with H2O2 used as a substrate to oxidize other molecules. We examined peroxidase properties of the extracellular form of SOD (SOD3), a major isoform of SOD in the vessel wall, by using recombinant SOD3 and an in vivo model of atherosclerosis. METHODS AND(More)
Oxidative stress is increased in the myocardium following infarction and plays a significant role in death of cardiac myocytes, leading to cardiac dysfunction. Levels of the endogenous antioxidant Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) decrease following myocardial infarction. While SOD1 gene therapy studies show promise, trials with SOD1 protein have had little(More)