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S everal mammalian enzymes are capable of transferring electrons to molecular oxygen, sequentially forming the 1 electron-reduction product superoxide (O 2 ⅐Ϫ) and the 2 electron-reduction product hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2). These serve as progenitors for other reactive oxygen species (ROS), including peroxynitrite (ONOO Ϫ), hypochlorous acid, the hydroxyl(More)
Hypertension promotes atherosclerosis and is a major source of morbidity and mortality. We show that mice lacking T and B cells (RAG-1-/- mice) have blunted hypertension and do not develop abnormalities of vascular function during angiotensin II infusion or desoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt. Adoptive transfer of T, but not B, cells restored these(More)
BACKGROUND Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the development of cardiovascular pathologies. NAD(P)H oxidases (Noxes) are major sources of reactive oxygen species in the vessel wall, but the importance of individual Nox homologues in specific layers of the vascular wall is unclear. Nox1 upregulation has been implicated in cardiovascular(More)
Hypertension caused by angiotensin II is dependent on vascular superoxide (O2*-) production. The nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAD[P]H) oxidase is a major source of vascular O2*- and is activated by angiotensin II in vitro. However, its role in angiotensin II-induced hypertension in vivo is less clear. In the present studies, we used mice(More)
BACKGROUND Impaired flow-dependent, endothelium-mediated vasodilation (FDD) in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) results, at least in part, from accelerated degradation of nitric oxide by oxygen radicals. The mechanisms leading to increased vascular radical formation, however, remain unclear. Therefore, we determined endothelium-bound activities of(More)
Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease occurring preferentially in arterial regions exposed to disturbed flow conditions including oscillatory shear stress (OS). OS exposure induces endothelial expression of bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4), which in turn may activate intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression and monocyte adhesion. OS is(More)
An essential cofactor for the endothelial NO synthase is tetrahydrobiopterin (H4B). In the present study, we show that in human endothelial cells, laminar shear stress dramatically increases H4B levels and enzymatic activity of GTP cyclohydrolase (GTPCH)-1, the first step of H4B biosynthesis. In contrast, protein levels of GTPCH-1 were not affected by(More)
BACKGROUND Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with an increased risk of stroke due almost exclusively to emboli from left atrial appendage (LAA) thrombi. Recently, we reported that AF was associated with endocardial dysfunction, limited to the left atrium (LA) and LAA and manifest as reduced nitric oxide (NO*) production and increased expression of(More)
Endothelial cell (EC) proliferation and migration are important for reendothelialization and angiogenesis. We have demonstrated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) derived from the small GTPase Rac1-dependent NAD(P)H oxidase are involved in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-mediated endothelial responses mainly through the VEGF type2 receptor(More)
In animal models of neurodegenerative diseases pathological changes vary with the type of organ and species of the animals. We studied differences in the mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in the liver (LM) and brain (BM) of Sprague-Dawley rats and C57Bl mice. In the presence of ADP mouse LM and rat LM(More)