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Eukaryotic cells rapidly reduce protein synthesis in response to various stress conditions. This can be achieved by the phosphorylation-mediated inactivation of a key translation initiation factor, eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2). However, the persistent translation of certain mRNAs is required for deployment of an adequate stress response. We carried(More)
Using a systematic, whole-genome analysis of enhancer activity of human-specific endogenous retroviral inserts (hsERVs), we identified an element, hsERVPRODH, that acts as a tissue-specific enhancer for the PRODH gene, which is required for proper CNS functioning. PRODH is one of the candidate genes for susceptibility to schizophrenia and other neurological(More)
Retrotransposon L1 is a mobile genetic element of the LINE family that is extremely widespread in the mammalian genome. It encodes a dicistronic mRNA, which is exceptionally rare among eukaryotic cellular mRNAs. The extremely long and GC-rich L1 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) directs synthesis of numerous copies of RNA-binding protein ORF1p per mRNA. One(More)
Many mammalian mRNAs possess long 5' UTRs with numerous stem-loop structures. For some of them, the presence of Internal Ribosome Entry Sites (IRESes) was suggested to explain their significant activity, especially when cap-dependent translation is compromised. To test this hypothesis, we have compared the translation initiation efficiencies of some(More)
We have previously shown that translation driven by the 5' UTR of Apaf-1 mRNA is relatively efficient in the absence of m7G-cap, but no IRES is involved. Nevertheless, it may be speculated that a "silent" IRES is activated under apoptosis conditions. Here, we show that translation of the mRNA with the Apaf-1 5' UTR is relatively resistant to apoptosis(More)
According to generally accepted scanning model proposed by M. Kozak, the secondary structure of 5'-untranslated regions (5'-UTR) of eukaryotic mRNAs can only cause an inhibitory effect on the translation initiation since it would counteract migration of the 40S ribosomal subunit along the mRNA polynucleotide chain. Thus, the existence of efficiently(More)
B cells play an important role in the pathogenesis of both systemic and organ-specific autoimmune diseases. Autoreactive B cells not only produce autoantibodies, but also are capable to efficiently present specific autoantigens to T cells. Furthermore, B cells can secrete proinflammatory cytokines and amplify the vicious process of self-destruction. B(More)
The t(8;21)(q22;q22) rearrangement represents the most common chromosomal translocation in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). It results in a transcript encoding for the fusion protein AML1-ETO (AE) with transcription factor activity. AE is considered to be an attractive target for treating t(8;21) leukemia. However, AE expression alone is insufficient to cause(More)
Unlike bacteria, a specialized eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF)-2, in the form of the ternary complex eIF2-GTP-Met-tRNA(i) (Met), is used to deliver the initiator tRNA to the ribosome in all eukaryotic cells. Here we show that the hepatitis C virus (HCV) internal ribosome entry site (IRES) can direct translation without eIF2 and its GTPase-activating(More)
During translation, aminoacyl-tRNAs are delivered to the ribosome by specialized GTPases called translation factors. Here, we report the tRNA binding to the P-site of 40 S ribosomes by a novel GTP-independent factor eIF2D isolated from mammalian cells. The binding of tRNA(i)(Met) occurs after the AUG codon finds its position in the P-site of 40 S ribosomes,(More)