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The mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) promoter is induced by glucocorticoid hormone. A robust hormone- and receptor-dependent activation could be reproduced in Xenopus laevis oocytes. The homogeneous response in this system allowed a detailed analysis of the transition in chromatin structure following hormone activation. This revealed two novel findings:(More)
All metazoan animals comprise a body plan of different complexity. Since--especially based on molecular and cell biological data--it is well established that all metazoan phyla, including the Porifera (sponges), evolved from a common ancestor the search for common, basic principles of pattern formation (body plan) in all phyla began. Common to all metazoan(More)
The skeletal elements (spicules) of the demosponge Lubomirskia baicalensis were analyzed; they are composed of amorphous, non-crystalline silica, and contain in a central axial canal the axial filament which consists of the enzyme silicatein. The axial filament, that orients the spicule in its longitudinal axis exists also in the center of the spines which(More)
Prostate cancer growth depends on androgens. Synthetic antiandrogens are used in the cancer treatment. However, antiandrogens, such as bicalutamide (BIC), have a mixed agonist/antagonist activity. Here we compare the antiandrogenic capacity of BIC to a new antiandrogen, MDV3100 (MDV) or Enzalutamide™. By reconstitution of a hormone-regulated enhancer in(More)
The mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) promoter is induced by glucocorticoid hormone via the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). The hormone-triggered effects on MMTV transcription and chromatin structure were studied in Xenopus oocytes. We previously showed that the nucleosomes organizing the MMTV promoter became translationally positioned upon hormone induction.(More)
The organization of DNA into chromatin is important in the regulation of transcription, by influencing the access of transcription factors to their DNA binding sites. Nuclear factor 1 (NF-1) is a transcription factor which binds to DNA constitutively and which interacts with its cognate DNA site with high affinity. However, this affinity is drastically(More)
19 Tickkborne encephalitis is one of the most comm mon and dangerous natural focal viral infections in the forest area of Eurasia [1, 2]. The problem of early therr apy for tickkborne encephalitis has not been solved as yet. The specific immunoglobulin used in clinical practice has several disadvantages [3]. Firstly, the proo duction of human immunoglobulin(More)
46 Sponges, or type Porifera, are the earliest multicell lular invertebrates diverged from a common ancestor of Metazoa about 580–635 million years ago [1, 2]. Sponges are a diverse widespread group of animals that play an important role in aquatic ecosystems as biofill trators and have practical applications in pharmacoll ogy and manufacture of(More)
Ribosome synthesis is an essential process in all cells. In Sacharomyces cerevisiae, the precursor rRNA, 35S pre-rRNA, is folded and assembled into a 90S pre-ribosomal complex. The 40S ribosomal subunit is processed from the pre-ribosomal complex. This requires concerted action of small nucleolar RNAs, such as U3 snoRNA, and a large number of trans-acting(More)