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When the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) is integrated into the genome of a mammalian cell, its long terminal repeat (LTR) harbors six specifically positioned nucleosomes. Transcription from the MMTV promoter is regulated by the glucocorticoid hormone via the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). The mechanism of the apparently constitutive nucleosome arrangement(More)
The mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) promoter is induced by glucocorticoid hormone. A robust hormone- and receptor-dependent activation could be reproduced in Xenopus laevis oocytes. The homogeneous response in this system allowed a detailed analysis of the transition in chromatin structure following hormone activation. This revealed two novel findings:(More)
Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) promoter-driven transcription is induced by glucocorticoid hormone via binding of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). The MMTV promoter also harbors a binding site for nuclear factor 1 (NF1). NF1 and GR were expressed in Xenopus oocytes; this revealed GR-NF1 cooperativity both in terms of DNA binding and chromatin remodeling(More)
The chromatin structure of ribosomal genes of D. melanogaster has been studied by crosslinking proteins to DNA. We found that a number of histone contacts with DNA through histidine in the approximately 1 kb-long region surrounding the transcription initiation site, coding regions and the region of 240 bp-long repeats from the intergenic spacers(More)
We have analyzed transcription termination, 3'-end formation, and excision of the 3'-terminal intron in vivo in the Balbiani ring 1 (BR1) gene and its pre-mRNA. We show that full-length RNA transcripts are evenly spaced on the gene from a position 300 bp upstream to a region 500-700 bp downstream of the polyadenylation sequence. Very few full-length(More)
Linker histone H1 is located on the surface of the nucleosome where it interacts with the linker DNA region and stabilizes the 30-nm chromatin fiber. Vertebrates have several different, relatively conserved subtypes of H1; however, the functional reason for this is unclear. We have previously shown that H1 can be reconstituted in Xenopus oocytes, cells that(More)
The fear of autoimmunity in DNA-vaccine recipients initiated screening for anti-DNA antibodies in rabbits immunized with genes of viral nucleic acid-binding and adapter proteins. Of 11 DNA/protein-immunized rabbits, seven had developed secondary antibodies against DNA detected at weeks 11-50 from the on-start of immunization. Two rabbits immunized with(More)
Xenopus oocytes lack somatic linker histone H1 but contain an oocyte-specific variant, B4. The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) inducible mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) promoter was reconstituted in Xenopus oocytes to address the effects of histone H1. The expression of Xenopus H1o [corrected] (H1) via cytoplasmic mRNA injection resulted in H1 incorporation(More)
Numerous attempts to induce immunity against HCV core (HCV-C) by DNA immunization met serious difficulties in optimizing T-helper cell and antibody responses. Immunomodulatory properties of HCV-C could be blamed that seem to be dependent on the genotype of HCV source. Here, we characterized HCV-C gene from HCV 1b isolate 274933RU. Eukaryotic expression of(More)
The organization of DNA into chromatin is important in the regulation of transcription, by influencing the access of transcription factors to their DNA binding sites. Nuclear factor 1 (NF-1) is a transcription factor which binds to DNA constitutively and which interacts with its cognate DNA site with high affinity. However, this affinity is drastically(More)