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Alveolar macrophages play a crucial role in initiating the inflammatory response in allergic asthma through the cross-linking of the low affinity IgE receptors (Fc epsilon RIIb or CD23) by IgE-allergen immunocomplexes. We have previously shown that CD23 cross-linking in monocytes and U937 cells targets I kappa B alpha, leading to the activation of the(More)
The nuclear factor of kappaB (NF-kappaB) is a ubiquitous transcription factor that is key in the regulation of the immune response and inflammation. T cell receptor (TCR) cross-linking is in part required for activation of NF-kappaB, which is dependent on the phosphorylation and degradation of IkappaBalpha. By using Jurkat and primary human T lymphocytes,(More)
NF-kappaB is an ubiquitous transcription factor that is a key in the regulation of the immune response and inflammation. T-cell receptor (TCR) cross-linking leads to NF-kappaB activation, an IkappaB kinase (IKK)-dependent process. However, the upstream kinases that regulate IKK activity following TCR activation remain to be fully characterized. Herein, we(More)
The phosphoprotein I kappa B alpha exists in the cytoplasm of resting cells bound to the ubiquitous transcription factor NF-kappa B (p50-p65). In response to specific cellular stimulation, I kappa B alpha is further phosphorylated and subsequently degraded, allowing NF-kappa B to translocate to the nucleus and transactivate target genes. To identify the(More)
BACKGROUND HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 causes cellular activation resulting in anergy, apoptosis, proinflammatory cytokine production, and through an unknown mechanism, enhanced HIV replication. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We describe that the signals which promote apoptosis are also responsible for the enhanced HIV replication. Specifically, we(More)
Altered brain metabolism is associated with progression of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Mitochondria respond to bioenergetic changes by continuous fission and fusion. To account for three dimensional architecture of the brain tissue and organelles, we applied 3-dimensional electron microscopy (3D EM) reconstruction to visualize mitochondrial structure in the(More)
Although treatment with the protein kinase C (PKC) activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) is known to protect a subset of cells from induction of apoptosis by death ligands such as Fas ligand and tumor necrosis factor-alpha-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, the mechanism of this protection is unknown. This study demonstrated that protection in(More)
In HIV-infected patients, concurrent infections with bacteria and viruses are known to induce HIV replication as assessed by increases in plasma HIV RNA levels. In the present study, we determined the cell surface receptor and molecular mechanisms of enterobacterial LPS-induced HIV transcription. Human dermal microvessel endothelial cells (HMEC) were(More)
HIV-1 infection causes the depletion of host CD4 T cells through direct and indirect (bystander) mechanisms. Although HIV Env has been implicated in apoptosis of uninfected CD4 T cells via gp120 binding to either CD4 and/or the chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), conflicting data exist concerning the molecular mechanisms involved. Using primary human CD4 T cells,(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection causes apoptosis of infected CD4 T cells as well as uninfected (bystander) CD4 and CD8 T cells. It remains unknown what signals cause infected cells to die. We demonstrate that HIV-1 protease specifically cleaves procaspase 8 to create a novel fragment termed casp8p41, which independently induces(More)