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Uric acid, the naturally occurring product of purine metabolism, is a strong peroxynitrite scavenger, as demonstrated by the capacity to bind peroxynitrite but not nitric oxide (NO) produced by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated cells of a mouse monocyte line. In this study, we used uric acid to treat experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) in the PLSJL(More)
The presence of antibodies reactive with Borna disease virus (BDV) in the sera of some patients with certain psychiatric illnesses has been taken as evidence that this veterinary neurotrophic virus may occasionally infect and cause psychiatric disorders in humans. In this paper, we report the results of our studies concerning the detection of BDV-specific(More)
A new approach to the production and delivery of vaccine antigens is the use of engineered amino virus-based vectors. A chimeric peptide containing antigenic determinants from rabies virus glycoprotein (G protein) (amino acids 253-275) and nucleoprotein (N protein) (amino acids 404-418) was PCR-amplified and cloned as a translational fusion product with the(More)
Peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)), the product of nitric oxide (NO(radical)) and superoxide (O(2)(-radical)), is believed to be a major contributor to immunotoxicity when produced by activated cells expressing inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Uric acid (UA) is a natural scavenger of ONOO(-) that is present at high levels in the sera of humans and other higher(More)
OBJECTIVE HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) is a frequent and heterogeneous complication of HIV, affecting nearly 50% of infected individuals in the combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) era. This is a particularly devastating statistic because the diagnosis of HAND confers an increased risk of HIV-associated morbidity and mortality in affected(More)
OBJECTIVE We evaluated safety, antiviral, immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties of aprepitant - a neurokinin 1 receptor antagonist. DESIGN Phase IB randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded study. METHODS Eighteen patients were randomized (nine to aprepitant and nine to placebo). The patients received once-daily treatment (375 mg(More)
OBJECTIVES Vapreotide, a synthetic analog of somatostatin, has analgesic activity most likely mediated through the blockade of neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R), the substance P (SP)-preferring receptor. The ability of vapreotide to interfere with other biological effects of SP has yet to be investigated. METHODS We studied the ability of vapreotide to(More)
BACKGROUND This study investigated whether the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) citalopram downregulates the expression of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) receptor cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) and coreceptors chemokine receptor type 5 and chemokine-related receptor type 4 (CCR5 and CXCR4) on peripheral blood mononuclear cells(More)
Many HIV infected individuals with suppressed viral loads experience chronic immune activation frequently developing neurological impairment designated as HIV associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). Adjunctive therapies may reduce HIV associated inflammation and therefore decrease the occurrence of HAND. We have conducted in vitro, animal and clinical(More)