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Oncostatin M (OSM), an IL-6 family cytokine, has been implicated in a number of biological processes including the induction of inflammation and the modulation of extracellular matrix. In this study, we demonstrate that OSM is up-regulated in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and scleroderma, and investigate the(More)
Pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic lung disease characterized by excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) and remodeling of the lung architecture. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is considered the most common and severe form of the disease, with a median survival of approximately three years and no proven effective therapy. Despite the fact that(More)
Fibrosis can be an undesired consequence of activated cellular immune responses. The purpose of this work was to determine whether CD40 ligation and the pro-fibrotic cytokine IL-4 interact in regulating fibroblast proliferation and collagen production, and, if so, the mechanisms used. This study found that the combination of IL-4 and ligation of CD40 on the(More)
BACKGROUND We hypothesized that, in patients with pulmonary fibrosis combined with emphysema, clinical characteristics and outcomes may differ from patients with pulmonary fibrosis without emphysema. We identified 102 patients who met established criteria for pulmonary fibrosis. The amount of emphysema (numerical score) and type of emphysema (centrilobular,(More)
A CC chemokine, CCL18, has been previously reported to stimulate collagen production in pulmonary fibroblasts. This study focused on the role of protein kinase C (PKC) in the profibrotic signaling activated by CCL18 in pulmonary fibroblasts. Of the three PKC isoforms that are predominantly expressed in fibroblasts (PKC␣, PKC␦, and PKC⑀), two isoforms (PKC␦(More)
Insight Statement: Cryptic Genetic Variation (CGV) and degeneracy paradigms for adaptation are integrated in this review, revealing a common set of principles that support adaptation at multiple levels of biological organization. Using simulation studies, molecular-based experimental systems, and principles from population genetics, we demonstrate that CGV(More)
Cytokines are small, secreted proteins that control immune responses. Within the lung, they can control host responses to injuries or infection, resulting in clearance of the insult, repair of lung tissue, and return to homeostasis. Problems can arise when this response is over exuberant and/or cytokine production becomes dysregulated. In such cases,(More)
BACKGROUND Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fatal lung disease with no known effective therapy. It is often assumed, but has not been objectively evaluated, that pulmonary inflammation subsides as IPF progresses. The goal of this work was to assess changes in the degree of inflammatory cell infiltration, particularly lymphocytic infiltration, over(More)