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In a patient who had metastatic anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-rearranged lung cancer, resistance to crizotinib developed because of a mutation in the ALK kinase domain. This mutation is predicted to result in a substitution of cysteine by tyrosine at amino acid residue 1156 (C1156Y). Her tumor did not respond to a second-generation ALK inhibitor, but it(More)
Because of the critical roles of aberrant signaling in cancer, both c-MET and ALK receptor tyrosine kinases are attractive oncology targets for therapeutic intervention. The cocrystal structure of 3 (PHA-665752), bound to c-MET kinase domain, revealed a novel ATP site environment, which served as the target to guide parallel, multiattribute drug design. A(More)
The c-Met receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) is a key regulator in cancer, in part, through oncogenic mutations. Eight clinically relevant mutants were characterized by biochemical, biophysical, and cellular methods. The c-Met catalytic domain was highly active in the unphosphorylated state (k(cat) = 1.0 s(-1)) and achieved 160-fold enhanced catalytic(More)
Crizotinib, an inhibitor of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), has also recently shown efficacy in the treatment of lung cancers with ROS1 translocations. Resistance to crizotinib developed in a patient with metastatic lung adenocarcinoma harboring a CD74-ROS1 rearrangement who had initially shown a dramatic response to treatment. We performed a biopsy of a(More)
We report the preclinical evaluation of PF-06463922, a potent and brain-penetrant ALK/ROS1 inhibitor. Compared with other clinically available ALK inhibitors, PF-06463922 displayed superior potency against all known clinically acquired ALK mutations, including the highly resistant G1202R mutant. Furthermore, PF-06463922 treatment led to regression of(More)
The c-Met pathway has been implicated in a variety of human cancers for its critical role in tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. PF-04217903 is a novel ATP-competitive small-molecule inhibitor of c-Met kinase. PF-04217903 showed more than 1,000-fold selectivity for c-Met compared with more than 150 kinases, making it one of the most selective c-Met(More)
The c-MET receptor tyrosine kinase is an attractive oncology target because of its critical role in human oncogenesis and tumor progression. An oxindole hydrazide hit 6 was identified during a c-MET HTS campaign and subsequently demonstrated to have an unusual degree of selectivity against a broad array of other kinases. The cocrystal structure of the(More)
Oncogenic c-ros oncogene1 (ROS1) fusion kinases have been identified in a variety of human cancers and are attractive targets for cancer therapy. The MET/ALK/ROS1 inhibitor crizotinib (Xalkori, PF-02341066) has demonstrated promising clinical activity in ROS1 fusion-positive non-small cell lung cancer. However, emerging clinical evidence has shown that(More)
Although crizotinib demonstrates robust efficacy in anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive non-small-cell lung carcinoma patients, progression during treatment eventually develops. Resistant patient samples revealed a variety of point mutations in the kinase domain of ALK, including the L1196M gatekeeper mutation. In addition, some patients progress due(More)
JNK1 (c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1) plays a crucial role in the regulation of obesity-induced insulin resistance and is implicated in the pathology of Type 2 diabetes. Its partner, JIP1 (JNK-interacting protein 1), serves a scaffolding function that facilitates JNK1 activation by MKK4 [MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) kinase 4] and MKK7 (MAPK kinase 7).(More)