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The 26S proteasome is an essential protease complex responsible for removing most short-lived intracellular proteins, especially those modified with polyubiquitin chains. We show here that an Arabidopsis mutant expressing an altered RPN10 subunit exhibited a pleiotropic phenotype consistent with specific changes in 26S proteasome function. rpn10-1 plants(More)
AtATM3, an ATP-binding cassette transporter of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), is a mitochondrial protein involved in the biogenesis of iron-sulfur clusters and iron homeostasis in plants. Our gene expression analysis showed that AtATM3 is up-regulated in roots of plants treated with cadmium [Cd(II)] or lead (II); hence, we investigated whether this(More)
The 26S proteasome is an ATP-dependent eukaryotic protease responsible for degrading many important cell regulators, especially those conjugated with multiple ubiquitins. Bound on both ends of the 20S core protease is a multisubunit regulatory particle that plays a crucial role in substrate selection by an as yet unknown mechanism(s). Here, we show that the(More)
African oil palm has the highest productivity amongst cultivated oleaginous crops. Species can constitute a single crop capable to fulfill the growing global demand for vegetable oils, which is estimated to reach 240 million tons by 2050. Two types of vegetable oil are extracted from the palm fruit on commercial scale. The crude palm oil and kernel palm oil(More)
Plastids are DNA-containing organelles unique to plant cells. In Arabidopsis, one-third of the genes required for embryo development encode plastid-localized proteins. To help understand the role of plastids in embryogenesis and postembryonic development, we characterized proteins of the mitochondrial transcription termination factor (mTERF) family, which(More)
Sterols have multiple functions in all eukaryotes. In plants, sterol biosynthesis is initiated by the enzymatic conversion of 2,3-oxidosqualene to cycloartenol. This reaction is catalyzed by cycloartenol synthase 1 (CAS1), which belongs to a family of 13 2,3-oxidosqualene cyclases in Arabidopsis thaliana. To understand the full scope of sterol biological(More)
Degradation of lipid peroxides leads to the formation of cytotoxic 2-alkenals and oxenes (collectively designated reactive carbonyls). The novel NADPH-dependent oxidoreductase 2-alkenal reductase (AER; EC from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), which is encoded by the gene At5g16970, catalyzes the reduction of the alpha,beta-unsaturated bond of(More)
The subgenomes of the plant cell, the nuclear genome, the plastome, and the chondriome are known to interact through various types of coevolving macromolecules. The combination of the organellar genome from one species with the nuclear genome of another species often leads to plants with deleterious phenotypes, demonstrating that plant subgenomes coevolve.(More)
Genetic dissection of the lipid bilayer composition provides essential in vivo evidence for the role of individual lipid species in membrane function. To understand the in vivo role of the anionic phospholipid, phosphatidylglycerol, the loss-of-function mutation was identified and characterized in the Arabidopsis thaliana gene coding for(More)
P1-zeta-crystallin (P1-ZCr) is an oxidative stress-induced NADPH:quinone oxidoreductase in Arabidopsis thaliana, but its physiological electron acceptors have not been identified. We found that recombinant P1-ZCr catalyzed the reduction of 2-alkenals of carbon chain C(3)-C(9) with NADPH. Among these 2-alkenals, the highest specificity was observed for(More)