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Microglia are the immune cells of the brain. Here we show a massive infiltration of highly ramified and elongated microglia within the core of amyloid plaques in transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Many of these cells originate from the bone marrow, and the beta-amyloid-40 and -42 isoforms are able to trigger this chemoattraction. These(More)
Systemic and local inflammatory processes have a key, mainly detrimental role in the pathophysiology of ischemic stroke. Currently, little is known about endogenous counterregulatory immune mechanisms. We examined the role of the key immunomodulators CD4(+)CD25(+) forkhead box P3 (Foxp3)(+) regulatory T lymphocytes (T(reg) cells), after experimental brain(More)
Innate responses in the CNS are critical to first line defense against infection and injury. Leukocytes migrate to inflammatory sites in response to chemokines. We studied leukocyte migration and glial chemokine expression within the denervated hippocampus in response to axonal injury caused by entorhinodentate lesions. A population of Mac1/CD11b+ CD45high(More)
Innate immunity was previously thought to be a nonspecific immunological programme that was engaged by peripheral organs to maintain homeostasis after stress and injury. Emerging evidence indicates that this highly organized response also takes place in the central nervous system. Through the recognition of neuronal fingerprints, the long-term induction of(More)
All species need an immediate reply to the microbial pathogens that is part of an effective immune response and is essential for the survival of most organisms. This reply is known as the innate immune response and is characterized by the de novo production of mediators that either kill the microbes directly or activate phagocytic cells to ingest and kill(More)
Neuropathic pain resulting from damage to or dysfunction of peripheral nerves is not well understood and difficult to treat. Although CNS hyperexcitability is a critical component, recent findings challenge the neuron-centric view of neuropathic pain etiology and pathology. Indeed, glial cells were shown to play an active role in the initiation and(More)
The occurrence of neuroinflammation after spinal cord injury (SCI) is well established, but its function is debated, with both beneficial and detrimental consequences ascribed. A discriminate of the role of neuroinflammation may be the time period after SCI, and there is evidence to favor early neuroinflammation being undesirable, whereas the later evolving(More)
Recent studies have demonstrated the activation of caspase-1 and caspase-3 in mice expressing mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Caspase-1 converts the prointerleukin-1beta into a potent proinflammatory molecule involved in the innate immune response and in neurodegenerative diseases. We report on the chronic(More)
Microglial cells are the main innate immune cells of the complex cellular structure of the brain. These cells respond quickly to pathogens and injury, accumulate in regions of degeneration and produce a wide variety of pro-inflammatory molecules. These observations have resulted in active debate regarding the exact role of microglial cells in the brain and(More)
This article reviews the mechanisms believed to mediate stress-induced inhibition of reproductive functions and the anatomical sites at which these effects take place. Particular emphasis is placed on the potential modulating role of hormones or neurotransmitters released during stress. At the level of the gonads, adrenal corticoids, pro-opiomelanocortin(More)