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Over the last decade, geometric morphometric methods have been applied increasingly to the study of human form. When too few landmarks are available, outlines can be digitized as series of discrete points. The individual points must be slid along a tangential direction so as to remove tangential variation, because contours should be homologous from subject(More)
The estimation of phylogenetic relationships and divergence times among a group of organisms is a fundamental first step toward understanding its biological diversification. The time of the most recent or last common ancestor (LCA) of extant platyrrhines is one of the most controversial among scholars of primate evolution. Here we use two molecular based(More)
The study of evolutionary relationships among human populations is fundamental to inferring processes that determine their structure and history. Among the different data types used to infer such relationships, molecular data, particularly nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, are preferred because of their high heritability and the low probability of changes(More)
Sex estimation of skeletal remains is an important issue in both forensics and bioarchaeology. The chance of attaining a high level of accuracy regarding sex allocations is related to the skeletal component analyzed and the ability of the techniques employed to describe shape and size differences among the sexes. Current opinion regards the hip bone as the(More)
To date, differences in craniofacial robusticity among modern and fossil humans have been primarily addressed by analyzing adult individuals; thus, the developmental basis of such differentiation remains poorly understood. This article aims to analyze the ontogenetic development of craniofacial robusticity in human populations from South America. Geometric(More)
Modifications of ontogenetic allometries play an important role in patterning the shape differentiation among populations. This study evaluates the influence of size variation on craniofacial shape disparity among human populations from South America and assesses whether the morphological disparity observed at the interpopulation level resulted from a(More)
One of the central topics in evolutionary biology is understanding the processes responsible for phenotypic diversification related to ecological factors. New World monkeys are an excellent reference system to investigate processes of diversification at macroevolutionary scales. Here, we investigate the cranial shape diversification related to body size and(More)
Phenotypic diversity among populations may result from divergent natural selection acting directly on traits or via correlated responses to changes in other traits. One of the most frequent patterns of correlated response is the proportional change in the dimensions of anatomical traits associated with changes in growth or absolute size, known as allometry.(More)
Understanding the importance of environmental dimensions behind the morphological variation among populations has long been a central goal of evolutionary biology. The main objective of this study was to review the spatial regression techniques employed to test the association between morphological and environmental variables. In addition, we show(More)
Currently, one of the major debates about the American peopling focuses on the number of populations that originated the biological diversity found in the continent during the Holocene. The studies of craniometric variation in American human remains dating from that period have shown morphological differences between the earliest settlers of the continent(More)