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There is a growing need to understand muscle cell behaviors and to engineer muscle tissues to replace defective tissues in the body. Despite a long history of the clinical use of electric fields for muscle tissues in vivo, electrical stimulation (ES) has recently gained significant attention as a powerful tool for regulating muscle cell behaviors in vitro.(More)
To engineer tissue-like structures, cells must organize themselves into three-dimensional (3D) networks that mimic the native tissue microarchitecture. Microfabricated hydrogel substrates provide a potentially useful platform for directing cells into biomimetic tissue architecture in vitro. Here, we present microgrooved methacrylated gelatin hydrogels as a(More)
To improve primary adult rat hepatocyte cultures, two types of PDMS microbioreactors containing a membrane, used as a scaffold for the attachment of cells, were built: one with a commercially-available polyester membrane, the other with a PDMS membrane (5 x 5 microm hole sizes) made in our laboratory. In that way, the relative surface area between blood(More)
Establishing the 3D microscale organization of cells has numerous practical applications, such as in determining cell fate (e.g., proliferation, migration, differentiation, and apoptosis) and in making functional tissue constructs. One approach to spatially pattern cells is by dielectrophoresis (DEP). DEP has characteristics that are important for cell(More)
Interface tissue engineering (ITE) is a rapidly developing field that aims to fabricate biological tissue alternates with the goal of repairing or regenerating the functions of diseased or damaged zones at the interface of different tissue types (also called "interface tissues"). Notable examples of the interface tissues in the human body include(More)
Engineered surface-bound molecular gradients are of great importance for a range of biological applications. In this paper, we fabricated a polydopamine gradient on a hydrophobic surface. A microfluidic device was used to generate a covalently conjugated gradient of polydopamine (PDA), which changed the wettabilty and the surface energy of the substrate.(More)
In this paper, we report a method to fabricate microengineered hydrogels that contain a concentration gradient of a drug for high-throughput analysis of cell-drug interactions. A microfluidic gradient generator was used to create a concentration gradient of okadaic acid (OA) as a model drug within poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate hydrogels. These hydrogels(More)
Dielectrophoresis is used to align carbon nanotubes (CNTs) within gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) hydrogels in a facile and rapid manner. Aligned GelMA-CNT hydrogels show higher electrical properties compared with pristine and randomly distributed CNTs in GelMA hydrogels. The muscle cells cultured on these materials demonstrate higher maturation compared with(More)
In this study, we developed a miniaturized microfluidic-based high-throughput cell toxicity assay to create an in vitro model of Parkinson's disease (PD). In particular, we generated concentration gradients of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) to trigger a process of neuronal apoptosis in pheochromocytoma PC12 neuronal cell line. PC12 cells were cultured in a(More)
Controlling the cellular microenvironment can be used to direct the cellular organization, thereby improving the function of synthetic tissues in biosensing, biorobotics, and regenerative medicine. In this study, we were inspired by the microstructure and biological properties of the extracellular matrix to develop freestanding ultrathin polymeric films(More)