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The production of antimicrobial peptides is an important aspect of host defense in multicellular organisms. In Drosophila, seven antimicrobial peptides with different spectra of activities are synthesized by the fat body during the immune response and secreted into the hemolymph. Using GFP reporter transgenes, we show here that all seven Drosophila(More)
Metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors are a family of G-protein-coupled receptors that play central roles as modulators of both glutamatergic and other major neurotransmitter systems in CNS. Using molecular modeling, site-directed mutagenesis, [(3)H]LY354740 binding, [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding, and activation of GIRK current, we have been able to identify(More)
Metchnikowin is a recently discovered proline-rich peptide from Drosophila with antibacterial and antifungal properties. Like most other antimicrobial peptides from insects, its expression is immune-inducible. Here we present evidence that induction of metchnikowin gene expression can be mediated either by the TOLL pathway or by the imd gene product. We(More)
One of the characteristics of the host defense of higher insects is the rapid and transient synthesis of a variety of potent antimicrobial peptides. To date, several distinct inducible antimicrobial peptides or peptide families have been totally or partially characterized. We present here the isolation and characterization of a novel 26-residue proline-rich(More)
The binding properties of [(3)H]-LY354740 were characterized on rat metabotropic glutamate receptors mGlu2 and mGlu3 expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells using Semliki Forest virus vectors. The saturation isotherm gave K(D) values of 20+/-5 and 53+/-8 nM and B(max) values of 474+/-161 and 667+/-89 fmol/mg protein for mGlu2 and mGlu3 receptors,(More)
Insects respond to a bacterial challenge by rapidly synthesizing a diverse range of antibacterial and antifungal peptides. One of them, drosocin, a 19-residue proline-rich antibacterial peptide, was isolated from Drosophila. This peptide carries a disaccharide moiety attached to a threonine residue in mid-chain position. The present report describes the(More)
The use of hydrogen peroxide as a sanitant in isolators and other barrier systems is well documented. To confirm that the isolator maintains a germ-free environment between decontamination cycles, microbiological air monitoring is performed after the sanitation and aeration cycles. In this study, we have shown that residual levels of hydrogen peroxide as(More)
Natural polyamines have been proposed to induce histamine release from mast cells through a direct interaction with G proteins. Alternatively, the polyamine binding site of ionotropic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors has been suggested as a target for spermine on mast cells. We reexamined both hypotheses. Incubation of rat peritoneal mast cells with(More)
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