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HIV-1 Vpu interacts with CD4 in the endoplasmic reticulum and triggers CD4 degradation, presumably by proteasomes. Human beta TrCP identified by interaction with Vpu connects CD4 to this proteolytic machinery, and CD4-Vpu-beta TrCP ternary complexes have been detected by coimmunoprecipitation. beta TrCP binding to Vpu and its recruitment to membranes(More)
Aquaporin 4 (AQP4) is the predominant water channel in the brain. It is targeted to specific membrane domains of astrocytes and plays a crucial role in cerebral water balance in response to brain edema formation. AQP4 is also specifically expressed in the basolateral membranes of epithelial cells. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in its polarized(More)
The surface expression of MHC I is reduced in HIV-infected cells. We show that the Nef protein affects the intracellular sorting of HLA-A and -B molecules. In the presence of Nef, these proteins accumulate in the Golgi and colocalize with clathrin-coated vesicles. MHC I modulation relies on a tyrosine-based sorting signal located in the cytoplasmic domain(More)
The role of the accessory gene product Vpr during human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection remains unclear. We have used the yeast two-hybrid system to identify cellular proteins that interact with Vpr and could be involved in its function. A cDNA clone which encodes the human uracil DNA glycosylase (UNG), a DNA repair enzyme involved in removal of(More)
BACKGROUND Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Nef protein accelerates virulent progression of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) by its interaction with specific cellular proteins involved in signal transduction and host cell activation. Nef has been shown to bind specifically to a subset of the Src family of kinases. The structures of free Nef and(More)
beta-arrestins (betaarrs) are two highly homologous proteins that uncouple G protein-coupled receptors from their cognate G proteins, serve as adaptor molecules linking G protein-coupled receptors to clathrin-coat components (AP-2 complex and clathrin), and act as scaffolding proteins for ERK1/2 and JNK3 cascades. A striking difference between the two(More)
The Vpr protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) influences the in vivo mutation rate of the virus. Since Vpr interacts with a cellular protein implicated in the DNA repair process, uracil DNA glycosylase (UNG), we have explored the contribution of this interaction to the mutation rate of HIV-1. Single-amino-acid variants of Vpr were(More)
The maximal virulence of HIV-1 requires Nef, a virally encoded peripheral membrane protein. Nef binds to the adaptor protein (AP) complexes of coated vesicles, inducing an expansion of the endosomal compartment and altering the surface expression of cellular proteins including CD4 and class I major histocompatibility complex. Here, we show that Nef(More)
Like other HIV-1 auxiliary proteins, Vpr is conserved within all the human (HIV-1, HIV-2) and simian (SIV) immunodeficiency viruses. However, Vpr and homologous HIV-2, and SIV Vpx are the only viral auxiliary proteins specifically incorporated into virus particles through direct interaction with the Gag precursor, indicating that this presence in the core(More)
The karyophilic properties of the human immunodeficiency virus, type I (HIV-1) pre-integration complex (PIC) allow the virus to infect non-dividing cells. To better understand the mechanisms responsible for nuclear translocation of the PIC, we investigated nuclear import of HIV-1 integrase (IN), a PIC-associated viral enzyme involved in the integration of(More)