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This systematic review with meta-analysis aimed to determine the effects of exercise and motor training on the performance of balance-related activities and falls in people with Parkinson's disease. Sixteen randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials that assessed the efficacy of exercise and/or motor training against no intervention or placebo(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether falls can be prevented with minimally supervised exercise targeting potentially remediable fall risk factors, i.e., poor balance, reduced leg muscle strength, and freezing of gait, in people with Parkinson disease. METHODS Two hundred thirty-one people with Parkinson disease were randomized into exercise or usual-care(More)
There is research evidence that exercise and motor training are beneficial for people with Parkinson's disease (PD), and clinicians seek to implement optimal programs. This paper summarizes important factors about the nature and reporting of randomized controlled trials of exercise and/or motor training for people with PD which are likely to influence the(More)
Falls in people with Parkinson's disease (PD) are frequent and recurrent events with devastating and widespread consequences. Despite this, understanding of the predictive and explanatory value of fall risk factors, as well as the development and testing of interventions aimed at reducing falls, are in their infancy. This review focuses on fall prediction(More)
BACKGROUND In order to develop multifaceted fall prevention strategies for people with Parkinson's disease (PD), greater understanding of the impact of physical and cognitive performance on falls is required. OBJECTIVE We aimed to identify the relative contribution of a comprehensive range of physical and cognitive risk factors to prospectively-measured(More)
BACKGROUND Balance and mobility problems are common for people with Parkinson disease (PD). OBJECTIVE To determine the relationships of motor and cognitive impairments with specific balance and mobility task performance. METHODS A total of 82 community-dwelling people with idiopathic PD were tested "on" medication. Impairments measured included leg(More)
BACKGROUND Physical inactivity and falls in older people are important public health problems. Health conditions that could be ameliorated with physical activity are particularly common in older people. One in three people aged 65 years and over fall at least once annually, often resulting in significant injuries and ongoing disability. These problems need(More)
Muscle power, muscle strength and postural sway are considered to be determinants of fall risk and gait in Parkinson's disease (PD) and potential targets for therapeutic trials. However, the potential usefulness of these tests as outcome measures depends on their reproducibility in the PD population. Therefore, measures of leg muscle power, leg muscle(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Flexed truncal posture is common in people with Parkinson disease (PD); however, little is known about the mechanisms responsible or its effect on physical performance. This cross-sectional study aimed to establish the reliability of a truncal posture measurement and explore relationships between PD impairments and truncal posture, as(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Falls are common in people with Parkinson's disease (PD) but few data exist on fall-related hospitalizations in this group. This population-based study compared fall-related hospital admissions, injury rates and consequences in people with and without PD, and determined whether PD was an independent predictor of fall-related hospital(More)