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First-episode psychosis (FEP) patients show hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, but the mechanisms leading to this are still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of stress and antipsychotic treatment on diurnal cortisol levels, and on cortisol awakening response, in FEP. Recent stressful events, perceived(More)
BACKGROUND The potential effects of antipsychotic drugs on brain structure represent a key factor in understanding neuroanatomical changes in psychosis. This review addresses two issues: (1) do antipsychotic medications induce changes in total or regional human brain volumes and (2) do such effects depend on antipsychotic type? METHOD A systematic review(More)
This study investigated the relationship between cortisol secretion and hippocampal volume in first-episode psychosis and healthy controls. Hippocampal volume was measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 24 first-episode psychosis patients and in 18 healthy controls, together with diurnal cortisol levels. Twelve patients received a second MRI scan at(More)
BACKGROUND Reduced brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels have been reported in the serum and plasma of patients with psychosis. The aim of this cross-sectional case-control study was to investigate potential causes and consequences of reduced BDNF expression in these patients by examining the association between BDNF levels and measures of stress,(More)
OBJECTIVE The study aimed to assess the antidepressant efficacy and tolerability of adjunctive ropinirole in outpatients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD). METHOD The study sample consisted of patients with a major depressive episode (diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria) and TRD. Ropinirole 0.25 to 1.5 mg daily was added to tricyclic(More)
Patients with psychosis have higher rates of childhood trauma, which is also associated with adverse effects on cognitive functions such as attention, concentration and mental speed, language, and verbal intelligence. Although the pathophysiological substrate for this association remains unclear, these cognitive deficits may represent the functional(More)
OBJECTIVE Although depressive symptoms are preponderant in the course of bipolar (BP) disorders, the treatment of BP depression remains a controversial issue with different clinical approaches available. This review addresses the issues of whether antidepressants (ADs) are effective in treating acute and long-term BP depression, risks linked to ADs and what(More)
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