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Mutations reducing the functional activity of leptin, the leptin receptor, alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormones (alpha-MSH) and the melanocortin-4 receptor (Mc4r) all lead to obesity in mammals. Moreover, mutant mice that ectopically express either agouti (Ay/a mice) or agouti-related protein (Agrp), antagonists of melanocortin signalling, become obese.(More)
Like leptin (OB protein), central infusion of the nonspecific melanocortin agonist MTII reduces food intake for relatively long periods of time (i.e., 12 h; W. Fan, B. A. Boston, R. A. Kesterson, V. J. Hruby, and R. D. Cone, Nature; 385: 165-168, 1997). To test the hypothesis that MTII may influence ingestive behavior via mechanisms similar to those that(More)
The extralist cued recall task simulates everyday reminding because a memory is encoded on the fly and retrieved later by an unexpected cue. Target words are studied individually, and recall is cued by associatively related words having preexisting forward links to them. In Experiments 1 and 2, forward cue-to-target and backward target-to-cue strengths were(More)
In the present experiments, predictions of common path and recursive-reminding models of recognition (RG) and judgments of frequency (JOFs) were contrasted. The results indicated that each task is affected by study frequency, printed frequency, and associative connectivity. However, effect size analyses indicated that study frequency and item attributes(More)
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