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We present the fundamentals of multiple-input, multiple-output (MIMO) signal processing for mode-division multiplexing (MDM) in multimode fiber (MMF). As an introduction, we review current long-haul optical transmission systems and how continued traffic growth motivates study of new methods to increase transmission capacity per fiber. We describe the key(More)
We review channel models for mode-division multiplexing (MDM) systems, the statistics derived from them, and their implications for system performance and complexity. We present the fundamentals of architectures and algorithms for multi-input multi-output (MIMO) equalization. With careful physical link design and judicious choice of signal processing(More)
Mode-division multiplexing (MDM) can increase the capacity of direct-detection short-reach systems in proportion to the number of modes employed. MDM requires compensation of modal crosstalk at a transmitter or receiver by the multi-input multi-output (MIMO) signal processing. We show that the channel estimation required for the MIMO processing in a basis(More)
Efficient solutions for the classification of multi-view images can be built on graph-based algorithms when little information is known about the scene or cameras. Such methods typically require a pair-wise similarity measure between images, where a common choice is the Euclidean distance. However, the accuracy of the Euclidean distance as a similarity(More)
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