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The human genome holds an extraordinary trove of information about human development, physiology, medicine and evolution. Here we report the results of an international collaboration to produce and make freely available a draft sequence of the human genome. We also present an initial analysis of the data, describing some of the insights that can be gleaned(More)
Although T-type Ca(2+) channels are implicated in nociception, the function of specific subtypes has not been well defined. Here, we compared pain susceptibility in mice lacking Ca(V)3.2 subtype of T-type Ca(2+) channels (Ca(V)3.2(-/-)) with wild-type littermates in various behavioral models of pain to explore the roles of Ca(V)3.2 in the processing of(More)
The effects of clozapine on the activities of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCCs) were investigated and compared with those of chlorpromazine (CPZ) in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. [(3)H]Norepinephrine ([(3)H]NE) secretion induced by activation of nAChRs was inhibited by clozapine and CPZ with(More)
In previous studies, Katayama and our group have documented a massive increase in excitatory amino acid release following traumatic brain injury, in both rat fluid percussion, and humans [2,5]. To test the hypothesis that the magnitude of this "Excitotoxic Surge" plays a significant role in determining 6-month patient outcome. We have studied 83 consecutive(More)
The investigators undertook a retrospective analysis of ventriculostomy infections to evaluate their relationship to monitoring duration and prophylactic catheter exchange. In 1984, the results of an epidemiological study of ventriculostomy-related infection were published. One of the conclusions of the paper was that the incidence of(More)
The survival of traumatized brain tissue depends on energy substrate delivery and consumption. Excitatory amino acids produce a disturbance of ion homeostasis and thus, increase energy demand. In head-injured patients, massive release of glutamate has been reported, especially in patients with focal contusions. Therefore, we studied the interrelationship(More)
OBJECT Disturbed ionic and neurotransmitter homeostasis are now recognized as probably the most important mechanisms contributing to the development of secondary brain swelling after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Evidence obtained in animal models indicates that posttraumatic neuronal excitation by excitatory amino acids leads to an increase in(More)
In the brain, lactate is not only a marker of anaerobic glycolysis due to hypoxia/ischemia, but also a neuronal energy source which is provided by glutamate-induced astrocytic glycolysis. In the present study we wanted to investigate the relationship between glutamate release and lactate production during the entire time-course and during three time periods(More)
Requirements that need to be met by multicast authentication schemes are packet authenticity, packet loss robustness, loss model independence, and denial of service (DoS) resistance. We develop an efficient multicast authentication scheme for real-time streaming applications that is resistant to denial-of-service attacks while consuming much less resources(More)
Higgs decays to Z boson pairs may be exploited to determine spin and parity of the Higgs boson, a method complementary to spin–parity measurements in Higgs-strahlung. For a Higgs mass above the on-shell ZZ decay threshold, a model-independent analysis can be performed, but only by making use of additional angular correlation effects in gluon-gluon fusion at(More)