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In South Korea, where avian influenza virus subtypes H3N2, H5N1, H6N1, and H9N2 circulate or have been detected, 3 genetically similar canine influenza virus (H3N2) strains of avian origin (A/canine/Korea/01/2007, A/canine/Korea/02/2007, and A/canine/Korea/03/2007) were isolated from dogs exhibiting severe respiratory disease. To determine whether the novel(More)
Recent studies on shortcut biological nitrogen removal (SBNR), which use the concept of denitrification from nitrite, have reported the key factors affecting nitrite build-up, such as dissolved oxygen (DO) limitation, pH, and free ammonia (FA) and free nitrous acid (FNA) inhibition. This study extends the concept of the traditional minimum substrate(More)
Plastids originated from cyanobacteria and the majority of the ancestral genes were lost or functionally transferred to the nucleus after endosymbiosis. Comparative genomic investigations have shown that gene transfer from plastids to the nucleus is an ongoing evolutionary process but molecular evidence for recent functional gene transfers among seed plants(More)
The first Korean strain of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) was isolated in 1997, and it exhibited high similarity to strain VR-2332 (type II PRRSV; North American type). Recently, however, infection with type I PRRSV (European type) has also been reported in Korea. To date, preliminary data about type I PRRSV prevalence in Korea(More)
BACKGROUND The emergence of zoonotic viruses in domestic animals is a significant public health concern. Canine influenza virus (CIV) H3N2 is a virus that can infect companion animals and is, therefore, a potential public health concern. OBJECTIVE This study investigated the inter- and intraspecies transmission of CIV among dogs, cats, and ferrets, under(More)
Since 1992, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) has been one of the most common porcine diarrhea-associated viruses in South Korea. We conducted a large-scale investigation of the incidence of PEDV in pigs with diarrhea in South Korea and consequently identified and characterized a novel PEDV variant with a large genomic deletion.
This study exploited the concept of the minimum/maximum substrate concentrations (MSC values) for identifying proper start-up conditions and achieving stable and low effluent total ammonium nitrogen (TAN) concentrations in suspended-growth short-cut biological nitrogen removal (SSBNR). Calculations based on the MSC concept indicated that S(Dmax), the TAN(More)
Despite several years of research into graphene electronics, sufficient on/off current ratio I(on)/I(off) in graphene transistors with conventional device structures has been impossible to obtain. We report on a three-terminal active device, a graphene variable-barrier "barristor" (GB), in which the key is an atomically sharp interface between graphene and(More)
Intimate coupling of photocatalysis and biodegradation (ICPB) shows promise to remove recalcitrant organic compounds from water, because photocatalysis breaks the compounds into biodegradable intermediates that are immediately mineralized by microorganisms inside a macroporous carrier, where they are protected from UV light and free radicals. Key to(More)
Alkaloid accumulation in plants is activated in response to stress, is limited in distribution and specific alkaloid repertoires are variable across taxa. Rauvolfioideae (Apocynaceae, Gentianales) represents a major center of structural expansion in the monoterpenoid indole alkaloids (MIAs) yielding thousands of unique molecules including highly valuable(More)