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In this study, we examined the effects of murine chemokine DNA, as genetic adjuvants given mucosally, on the systemic and distal mucosal immune responses to plasmid DNA encoding gB of herpes simplex virus (HSV) by using the mouse model. The CC chemokines macrophage inflammatory protein 1beta (MIP-1beta) and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) biased the(More)
Antimicrobial activity of GL (the aqueous extract from the carpophores of Ganoderma lucidum (FR)KARST) was tested in vitro against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria by serial broth dilution method, and the antimicrobial activity was expressed by minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). Among fifteen species of bacteria tested, the antimicrobial(More)
The CCR7 ligands, secondary lymphoid tissue chemokine (SLC) and Epstein-Barr virus-induced molecule 1 ligand chemokine (ELC), were recently recognized as key molecules in establishing functional microenvironments for the initiation of immune responses in secondary lymphoid tissue. Here, we investigated the effect of CCR7 ligands-DNA administration on(More)
The aim of our investigation was to improve the effectiveness of DNA vaccines against herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. We chose coimmunization with DNA encoding cytokines known to emphasize components of immune defense that best correlate with immune protection. These include interferon-producing T and NK cells and the IgG2a isotype immunoglobulin. Our(More)
A murine model immunized by systemic and mucosal delivery of plasmid DNA vaccine expressing glycoprotein B (pCIgB) of pseudorabies virus (PrV) was used to evaluate both the nature of the induced immunity and protection against a virulent virus. With regard to systemic delivery, the intramuscular (i.m.) immunization with pCIgB induced strong PrV-specific IgG(More)
Escherichia coli O157:H7/NM (E. coli O157) is now recognized as an important cause of diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome worldwide. There have been several cases of human E. coli O157 infection in Korea since it was first isolated from a patient with hemolytic-uremic syndrome in 1998. Meat, other foods, and recreational and drinking(More)
The unrestricted population of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells, which have been known to control the expression of autoimmune diseases and protective immunity to inflammatory reactions, has led to greater appreciation of functional plasticity. Detecting and/or isolating Ag-specific CD4(+)Foxp3(+) Tregs at the single cell level are required to study(More)
In order to find antiviral substances from basidiomycetes, two water soluble substances, GLhw and GLlw, and eight methanol soluble substances, GLMe-1-8, were prepared from carpophores of Ganoderma lucidum. These substances were examined for their activities against five strains of pathogenic viruses such as herpes simplex virus types 1 (HSV-1) and 2(More)
Despite extensive studies on cellular responses to activation of Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4), it is not evident weather its activation affects gene expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8) in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Therefore, this study has investigated whether and how TLR-4 influences IL-8 expression in VSMCs. Exposure of aortic smooth muscle(More)
Glycated serum albumin (GSA) promotes vascular complications in diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine if GSA induces chemokine, particularly CXCL8 (IL-8), and to determine intracellular signaling pathways activated by GSA in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). GSA increased IL-8 transcription via promoter activation and enhanced CXCL8 release(More)