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11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (HSD11B1), which converts inactive glucocorticoid to active glucocorticoid, plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of visceral obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. Hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PD) supplies a crucial cofactor, reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH), which allows(More)
Hypothalamic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is known to be increased in obesity. Induction of ER stress on hypothalamic neurons has been reported to cause hypothalamic neuronal apoptosis and malfunction of energy balance, leading to obesity. Carbenoxolone is an 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) inhibitor that converts inactive(More)
Increased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is known to be one of the causes of hypothalamic neuronal damage, as well as a cause of metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes. Recent evidence has suggested that Undaria pinnatifida (UP), an edible brown algae, has antioxidant activity. However, the neuroprotective effect of UP has yet to be examined.(More)
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